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Jinyang Du and Qiang Liu

vertically polarized microwave radiation at 12 channels and six frequencies ranging from 6.9 to 89.0 GHz. Its observations at moderately low frequencies are very sensitive to land water in various forms, such as soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow, and are little affected by atmosphere conditions. AMSR-E was launched in June 2002 and functioned well until October 2011. During this period, TGD experienced two impounding stages: the initial stage of impoundment with a water level increasing

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Thomas F. Lee, Francis J. Turk, Jeffrey Hawkins, and Kim Richardson

, K. Richardson , C. Sampson , and J. Kent , 1999 . Tropical cyclone images now can be viewed live on the Web. Eos Trans. AGU 80 : 612 – 614 . Marks , F. D. , and R. A. Houze , 1987 . Inner core structure of Hurricane Alicia from airborne Doppler observations. J. Atmos. Sci 44 : 1296 – 1317 . Negri , A. I. , R. F. Adler , and C. D. Kummerow , 1989 . False-color display of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc 70 : 146 – 151 . Spencer

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

-orbiting satellites to produce gridded precipitation data at high temporal and spatial resolution. These methods have been developed in concert with increasing validation capabilities, including space-borne passive microwave sensors, ground-based observations, and various field experiments. To compare the HRPP output to the coarser model output in this study, the HRPPs were spatially averaged onto a grid with 1° resolution. 2.2.1. TRMM The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Simpson et al. 1988

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Walter N. Meier, James A. Maslanik, Charles W. Fowler, and Jeffrey R. Key

interactions require a combination of observations, modeling, and remote sensing. Since sea ice and cloud conditions can vary dramatically from day to day on spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers, datasets are needed that provide frequent temporal sampling and broad spatial coverage. Ideally, these data products should describe the distribution of the ice cover and the energy balance components that affect growth and melt of the ice pack ( Barry et al., 1993 ). Satellite data from the National Oceanic

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Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, Eni Njoku, Reiner Zimmermann, and Maosheng Zhao

changes are likely to be widespread, with significant feedbacks to regional- and global-scale weather patterns and carbon cycle dynamics ( Pielke and Vidale 1995 ; Betts et al. 1998 ; Clark et al. 1999 ; Watson et al. 1998 ). Microwave remote sensing techniques have the capability to monitor large-scale changes in the relative abundance and phase (frozen or thawed) of water at the landscape surface. Satellite microwave remote sensing, unlike optical/near-infrared systems, is directly sensitive to

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M. Rodell, B. F. Chao, A. Y. Au, J. S. Kimball, and K. C. McDonald

cycles in agricultural land, and the seasonal growth and disappearance of opportunistic plants in the Arctic. It also undergoes interannual variations dependent upon land use and climate variability. Temporal variations of biomass distribution were computed and are presented below for 17 yr from which consistent satellite observations of vegetation properties are available. The resultant global geodynamic effects were quantified and compared against geodetic observations, for both seasonal and

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J. S. Kimball, K. C. McDonald, and M. Zhao

constraints to plant growth ( Kimball et al. 2006 ). The objective of the current investigation is to clarify the role of spring thaw timing in determining annual vegetation productivity, and whether a recent advance in the northern seasonal thaw cycle is sufficient to account for the sign and magnitude of the estimated positive vegetation productivity trend for the western Arctic. To accomplish this objective we conducted a temporal change classification of daily terrestrial microwave emissions from the

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David R. Easterling, Grant Goodge, Matthew J. Menne, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David Levinson

rural sites. Here we examine temperature time series compiled using observations from a group of stations located in western North Carolina, comprised of a mountain-top site, a station located in a moderately urbanized environment, and other more rural sites. In situ temperature trends during the period, plus trends from Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) lower-tropospheric temperature data for the same region from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH; Christy et al. 2000 ) version 5.2 (newly

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Ayan H. Chaudhuri and Rui M. Ponte

. Based on submarine measurements, the ice draft is reported by Rothrock et al. (1999) to have thinned by 40% from the 1960s and 1970s to the 1990s. The September sea ice coverage minimum of 2012 is the lowest areal extent since the start of the satellite multichannel passive-microwave record, reaching new record minima in both ice extent (ocean area with ice concentration of at least 15%) and ice area (cumulative area of actual ice coverage) ( Parkinson and Comiso 2013 ). A combination of several

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Hal F. Needham and Barry D. Keim

. They also estimate that differences in storm size may cause storm surge heights to vary as much as 30%. Nielsen ( Nielsen 2009 ) stated that these observations are mimicked by a simple power fit and further investigated the role of storm size on surge height using 1D and 2D analyses. Although these papers provided new insights into the influence of tropical cyclone size on storm surge generation, the approach of these analyses relied heavily on modeling. A thorough literature review on this topic

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