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  • Microwave observations x
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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

and climatological behavior. As an alternative, remote sensing from satellites is capable of global observation. Spaceborne observations such as passive microwave ( Cecil 2009 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Ferraro et al. 2015 ) and visible and infrared measurements ( Bauer-Messmer and Waldvogel 1997 ; Ravinder et al. 2013 ; Merino et al. 2014 ) can be exploited to get a more comprehensive mapping of hail occurrence. In the current literature, passive channels are utilized in different

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Daniel J. Cecil and Themis Chronis

frequency (decreasing wavelength) of the radiation. As such, much of the work involving passive microwave PCT has focused on channels in the 85–91-GHz range, with some attention also given to channels near 37 GHz. The Spencer et al. (1989) PCT 85 is probably the most widely used today, with the coefficient Θ 85 = 0.818 derived from several days of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I; Hollinger et al. 1990 ) global observations of cloud-free oceanic areas. Before settling on this value for Θ 85

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

.1175/1520-0450-30.7.924 Allen , J. T. , M. K. Tippett , Y. Kaheil , A. H. Sobel , C. Lepore , S. Nong , and A. Muehlbauer , 2017 : An extreme value model for U.S. hail size . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 4501 – 4519 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0119.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0119.1 American Meteorological Society , 2019 : Graupel. Glossary of Meteorology, http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Graupel . Bennartz , R. , and G. W. Petty , 2001 : The sensitivity of microwave remote sensing observations

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

F. Weng , 2010 : Uncertainties in microwave optical properties of frozen precipitation: Implications for remote sensing and data assimilation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3471 – 3487 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 . 10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 Kulie , M. S. , M. J. Hiley , R. Bennartz , S. Kneifel , and S. Tanelli , 2014 : Triple frequency radar reflectivity signatures of snow: Observations and comparisons to theoretical ice particle scattering models . J. Appl. Meteor

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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

retrieval development is explained in detail together with an uncertainty analysis based on data from Hyytiälä. Second, because there are no reliable MRR observations available in Hyytiälä during the same time when a cloud radar has been measuring, we test the performance of the new snowfall-rate retrieval methods with measurements from AWIPEV at Ny-Ålesund. At this site, the retrieved parameters are applied to measured Z e values from an MRR and the W-band Microwave Radar for Arctic Clouds (MiRAC

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Randy J. Chase, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

global snowfall properties is to use spaceborne microwave radars since ground-based observations are limited to easily accessible locations and passive spaceborne sensors have additional ambiguity in determining the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. Currently, there exist two NASA missions with spaceborne radars designed to sample hydrometeors. The first mission, launched in 2006, is CloudSat ( Stephens et al. 2002 ), which consists of a highly sensitive 94 GHz nonscanning cloud radar in a 98

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Sarah D. Bang and Daniel J. Cecil

cloud tops using satellite-based IR imager and CloudSat cloud profiling radar observations . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 55 , 479 – 491 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0170.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0170.1 Grody , N. C. , 1991 : Classification of snow cover and precipitation using the special sensor microwave imager . J. Geophys. Res. , 96 , 7423 – 7435 , https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD00045 . 10.1029/91JD00045 Hohl , R. , H.-H. Schiesser , and D. Aller , 2002 : Hailfall: The

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu

latitudinal coverage, observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E; Kawanishi et al. 2003 ) are also used over the oceans ( Kummerow et al. 2011 ), but this instrument has some sensitivity issues in the midlatitudes ( Stephens et al. 2010 ; Behrangi et al. 2012 ). The availability of gridded combined products such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ) helps to overcome the coverage issue, but these are typically

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Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Timothy J. Lang, Simone Tanelli, and Gian Franco Sacco

Blankenship (2012) , and Ortega et al. (2016) . TRMM observations have already shed light on where the most intense thunderstorms occur and what their microwave radiometer and Ku-band radar footprints are ( Zipser et al. 2006 ). Because of the high single-scattering albedo of ice particles, passive microwave radiometers feature large brightness temperature depressions corresponding to large amounts of ice ( Cecil 2011 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ). The most extreme storm in the TRMM dataset was

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Paloma Borque, Kirstin J. Harnos, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

multifrequency active and passive microwave sensors to detect and estimate ice-phase precipitation rate. This effort entails numerous GPM-specific and joint-agency field campaigns with state of the art cloud and precipitation observational capabilities (e.g., polarimetric radars, wind profiler radars, rain gauges, disdrometers, and aircraft in situ observations). One such field campaign was GCPEx conducted in cooperation with Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) and NASA in January–February of 2012

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