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  • Microwave observations x
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H. Dong and X. Zou

1. Introduction Satellite microwave temperature sounders, humidity sounders, and imagers have provided complementary global observations of the global atmospheric and Earth surface variables for several decades. It is important to ensure the highest possible accuracy and precision of these observations before they are assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Although the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership

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Wesley Berg, Stephen Bilanow, Ruiyao Chen, Saswati Datta, David Draper, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Spencer Farrar, W. Linwood Jones, Rachael Kroodsma, Darren McKague, Vivienne Payne, James Wang, Thomas Wilheit, and John Xun Yang

precipitation, the addition of high-frequency channels to the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) for increased sensitivity to snowfall, and an orbit inclination of 65°, which extends observations into the middle and high latitudes. Beyond the technical improvements to the GPM Core Observatory , however, the GPM mission is a constellation-based satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors in order to improve our

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

of orbiting imagers providing frequent observations of clouds and precipitation all over the globe ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ). The passive microwave retrieval of precipitation relies on the measurement of radiances at the top of the atmosphere, which are the product of the surface emission, emission and absorption by liquid rain drops and water vapor and scattering by ice particles. Vertically and horizontally polarized radiances are measured at various frequencies between 5 and 200 GHz

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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

satellites. Among them are SSM/IS on board the DMSP satellite series and AMSR-2 on board Global Change Observation Mission–Water ( GCOM-W1 ). Because of this, at a given point of the globe, passive microwave observations are available much more frequently than the radar measurements. Having a radar and a passive imager on board the same satellite not only allows for improved retrievals utilizing both sensors ( Grecu et al. 2016 ) but also the generation of a large quantity of collocated passive

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Rachael Kroodsma, Stephen Bilanow, and Darren McKague

1. Introduction The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 carrying on board the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) as the primary instruments to measure rainfall ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ). After a successful 17-plus years of operation, the spacecraft was decommissioned in April 2015, as the orbit decayed and the spacecraft altitude dropped below 350 km—a result of the fuel on board running out in July 2014. As part of end

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E. F. Stocker, F. Alquaied, S. Bilanow, Y. Ji, and L. Jones

establishing consistent reflectivities, brightness temperatures ( T b ), and precipitation retrievals between the two missions. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), a conical scanning microwave radiometer, is composed of nine channels with five different frequencies, namely, 10.65, 19.35, 21.30, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz. All frequencies were dual polarized (pol)—vertical (V) and horizontal (H)—except for 21.3 GHz, which was V-pol only ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ). The GPM Microwave Imager is a conically scanning

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Stephanie M. Wingo, Walter A. Petersen, Patrick N. Gatlin, Charanjit S. Pabla, David A. Marks, and David B. Wolff

.g., setting a horizontal grid spacing significantly smaller than the gate size of the ground-based scanning radars would not be a wise practice). Generally, we recommend SIMBA column grid spacing be set to at least 500 m in the horizontal and at least 250 m in the vertical planes, and we note that for some applications larger grid spacing on the order of 1 km may be more relevant (e.g., comparisons of ground-based radar and satelliteborne passive and active microwave observations at the pixel scale or

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Toshio Iguchi, Nozomi Kawamoto, and Riko Oki

, . Liu , G. , 2008 : Deriving snow cloud characteristics from CloudSat observations . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D00A09 , . Liu , G. , and E.-K. Seo , 2013 : Detecting snowfall over land by satellite high-frequency microwave observations: The lack of scattering signature and a statistical approach . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 1376 – 1387 , . 10.1002/jgrd.50172 Marra , A. C

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