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H. Dong and X. Zou

1. Introduction Satellite microwave temperature sounders, humidity sounders, and imagers have provided complementary global observations of the global atmospheric and Earth surface variables for several decades. It is important to ensure the highest possible accuracy and precision of these observations before they are assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Although the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

and climatological behavior. As an alternative, remote sensing from satellites is capable of global observation. Spaceborne observations such as passive microwave ( Cecil 2009 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Ferraro et al. 2015 ) and visible and infrared measurements ( Bauer-Messmer and Waldvogel 1997 ; Ravinder et al. 2013 ; Merino et al. 2014 ) can be exploited to get a more comprehensive mapping of hail occurrence. In the current literature, passive channels are utilized in different

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Daniel J. Cecil and Themis Chronis

frequency (decreasing wavelength) of the radiation. As such, much of the work involving passive microwave PCT has focused on channels in the 85–91-GHz range, with some attention also given to channels near 37 GHz. The Spencer et al. (1989) PCT 85 is probably the most widely used today, with the coefficient Θ 85 = 0.818 derived from several days of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I; Hollinger et al. 1990 ) global observations of cloud-free oceanic areas. Before settling on this value for Θ 85

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Wesley Berg, Stephen Bilanow, Ruiyao Chen, Saswati Datta, David Draper, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Spencer Farrar, W. Linwood Jones, Rachael Kroodsma, Darren McKague, Vivienne Payne, James Wang, Thomas Wilheit, and John Xun Yang

precipitation, the addition of high-frequency channels to the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) for increased sensitivity to snowfall, and an orbit inclination of 65°, which extends observations into the middle and high latitudes. Beyond the technical improvements to the GPM Core Observatory , however, the GPM mission is a constellation-based satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors in order to improve our

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Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Paolo Sanò, and Giulia Panegrossi

to the five different 10° latitude bins indicated in the legend. The extremely variable snow-cover extent and snow radiative properties in the MW are one of the main issues in the detection and quantification of snowfall by passive microwave observations, which remain among the most challenging tasks in global precipitation retrieval ( Bennartz and Bauer 2003 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2004 , 2019 ; Noh et al. 2009 ; Levizzani et al. 2011 ; Kongoli and Helfrich 2015 ; Chen et al. 2016

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

of orbiting imagers providing frequent observations of clouds and precipitation all over the globe ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ). The passive microwave retrieval of precipitation relies on the measurement of radiances at the top of the atmosphere, which are the product of the surface emission, emission and absorption by liquid rain drops and water vapor and scattering by ice particles. Vertically and horizontally polarized radiances are measured at various frequencies between 5 and 200 GHz

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

.1175/1520-0450-30.7.924 Allen , J. T. , M. K. Tippett , Y. Kaheil , A. H. Sobel , C. Lepore , S. Nong , and A. Muehlbauer , 2017 : An extreme value model for U.S. hail size . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 4501 – 4519 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0119.1 American Meteorological Society , 2019 : Graupel. Glossary of Meteorology, . Bennartz , R. , and G. W. Petty , 2001 : The sensitivity of microwave remote sensing observations

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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

satellites. Among them are SSM/IS on board the DMSP satellite series and AMSR-2 on board Global Change Observation Mission–Water ( GCOM-W1 ). Because of this, at a given point of the globe, passive microwave observations are available much more frequently than the radar measurements. Having a radar and a passive imager on board the same satellite not only allows for improved retrievals utilizing both sensors ( Grecu et al. 2016 ) but also the generation of a large quantity of collocated passive

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

F. Weng , 2010 : Uncertainties in microwave optical properties of frozen precipitation: Implications for remote sensing and data assimilation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3471 – 3487 , . 10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 Kulie , M. S. , M. J. Hiley , R. Bennartz , S. Kneifel , and S. Tanelli , 2014 : Triple frequency radar reflectivity signatures of snow: Observations and comparisons to theoretical ice particle scattering models . J. Appl. Meteor

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Daniel Watters, Alessandro Battaglia, Kamil Mroz, and Frédéric Tridon

1. Introduction The Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM CO ) satellite, launched in February 2014, offers unprecedented spaceborne observations of the three-dimensional structure of precipitating systems ( Hou et al. 2014 ). The satellite detects rain rates in the range 0.2–110.0 mm h −1 and travels in a sun-asynchronous orbit, providing coverage between 68°N and 68°S, thus augmenting the 37°N/S coverage of the predecessor Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM

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