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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

interactive dust emissions). Ocean accumulation of anthropogenic CO 2 can in principle also change ocean heat absorption by changing phytoplankton community structure and phytoplankton losses from the surface layer in sinking particles (by selecting against calcifying species and reducing availability of CaCO 3 as ballast), but this is a relatively minor effect and is not yet included in most models. In the middle row of Fig. 1 the CO 2 flux from atmosphere to land and ocean in the biogeochemically

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Chris Jones, Eddy Robertson, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Elena Shevliakova, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Tomohiro Hajima, Etsushi Kato, Michio Kawamiya, Spencer Liddicoat, Keith Lindsay, Christian H. Reick, Caroline Roelandt, Joachim Segschneider, and Jerry Tjiputra

closed atmosphere–land–ocean system. (top) Fossil-fuel emissions represent an addition of new carbon to the system, initially to the atmosphere, but after redistribution between the component reservoirs the total perturbed amount is conserved. (middle) Land-use emissions represent an initial movement of carbon from the land to atmosphere with zero net change in the system. Even after redistribution, between the components the net change remains zero. When both fossil and land-use emissions are

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

roughness. The second, the biogeochemical pathway, takes into account alterations of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O in response to changes in the land–atmosphere fluxes of these trace gases ( Arora and Boer 2010 ; Canadell et al. 2007 ; Houghton 2003 ; House et al. 2002 ; Pongratz et al. 2009 ; Shevliakova et al. 2009 ). Numerous biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes are parameterized in the land surface schemes of atmospheric general

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Spencer Liddicoat, Chris Jones, and Eddy Robertson

1. Introduction The extent to which the climate will change in the future because of rising concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has been the subject of much research in recent decades. For the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4; Solomon et al. 2007 ), general circulation models (GCMs) were used to examine the response of the climate system to a range of business-as-usual scenarios of CO 2 and other GHG emissions. These

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

1. Introduction Earth system models (ESMs) are complex numerical tools designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place on Earth between the atmosphere, the land, and the ocean. Worldwide, only a few research institutions have developed such models and used them to carry out historical and future simulations in order to project future climate change. ESMs, and numerical models in general, are never perfect. Consequently, before using their results to make future

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

. 2009 ). The first attempts to quantify these feedbacks were made decades ago (e.g., Eriksson 1963 ; Siegenthaler and Oeschger 1978 ), and the first three-dimensional atmosphere–ocean modeling experiments including both the carbon–concentration and the carbon–climate feedback were devised by Maier-Reimer et al. (1996) , Sarmiento and Le Quéré (1996) , and Matear and Hirst (1999) . With the advent of earth system models with fully coupled land and ocean carbon cycle modules, it became possible

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