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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

, which assumes that airflow in the ABL is turbulent and fully adjusted to the underlying terrain. The Monin–Obukhov similarity theory is applied to parameterize the relation between the meteorological elements and surface fluxes ( Hock and Holmgren 1996 ; Denby and Smeets 2000 ; Andreas 2002 ). The irregularity/undulations of the glacier surface, besides albedo, temperature, and so on, are significant controllers during the surface–atmosphere exchange of mass and energy ( Arya 1977 ). Normally

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

1. Introduction High-altitude regions, such as the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, have seen recently a striking air and ground surface warming ( Zhao et al. 2004 ; Wang et al. 2008 ; Qin et al. 2009 ; Yang et al. 2011a ; Wu et al. 2012 ), accompanied with noticeable ecological and hydrological changes ( Wang et al. 2003 ; Yang et al. 2007 ; Yang et al. 2011b ; Zhou and Huang 2012 ). Heat flux exchanges at the land–atmosphere

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

NDVI on red and near-infrared reflectance, these two bands will be averaged first over each EASE-Grid and then used to calculate its NDVI. MOD13A2 is used in the parameter derivation, mainly because of its high quality data. MOD09A1 is chosen from the best quality atmosphere condition during each 8-day measurement. MOD13A2 corrects the viewing angle difference based on MOD09A1; thus, large off-nadir and forward-scattering view angles and large solar zenith angles are avoided in MOD13A2. 3. Methods

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

surface model used in this study to simulate soil moisture is the JULES model—a widely used tiled model of subgrid heterogeneity that simulates water and energy fluxes between a vertical profile of soil layers, vegetation, and the atmosphere ( Best et al. 2011 ). The JULES model uses meteorological forcing data, surface land cover data, soil properties data, and values for prognostic variables. The soil properties data were derived from the Digital Atlas of Australian Soils ( McKenzie et al. 2000

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