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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

thanks are extended to Mark Lanier and Greg Langer of the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge and Dave Harr of the Bureau of Land Management. REFERENCES Cline, D. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Overview of the NASA cold land processes field experiment (CLPX-2002). Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment III , C. D. Kummerow, J. Jiang, and S. Uratuka, Eds., International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 4894), 361–372 . Cline, D. , and Coauthors , 2009

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

atmosphere been possible for periods of time long enough to validate snow cover energy and mass balance. Harding and Pomeroy (1996) showed that forest canopies substantially alter turbulent fluxes and that energy closure is difficult with mixed surfaces of snow, evergreen canopies, and trunks. Pomeroy et al. (1998) show that substantial errors can accrue to turbulent flux estimates from models in which the surface temperature and internal energetics of the model are in error. Over a snow cover, few

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

%–45% during the annual cycle ( Robinson et al. 1993 ), making snow cover the most rapidly varying large-scale surface feature on earth. Snow’s high albedo has a considerable influence on air temperatures and atmospheric circulation patterns ( Ellis and Leathers 1999 ; Cohen and Entekhabi 2001 ). At finer scales, snow cover influences atmospheric and ground temperatures by moderating the conductive, sensible, and latent energy transfers among the atmosphere, snow cover, and ground ( Liston 1995 ; Hinzman

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

integration with values of p t provided by the model. Separate measurements of diffuse radiation above the canopy were not made, so it is estimated by the empirical method of Erbs et al. (1982) . First, atmospheric transmissivity is found by dividing the above-canopy radiation by the radiation at the top of the atmosphere, giving where I 0 = 1367 W m −2 is the solar constant. The diffuse radiation is then estimated as S dif = dS 0 , with Direct radiation is the remainder S dir

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