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Matthew R. Mazloff, Raffaele Ferrari, and Tapio Schneider

and the mean zonal acceleration . J. Atmos. Sci. , 33 , 2031 – 2048 . Andrews , D. G. , J. Holton , and C. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp. Dufour , C. O. , J. Le Sommer , J. D. Zika , M. Gehlen , J. C. Orr , P. Mathiot , and B. Barnier , 2012 : Standing and transient eddies in the response of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning to the southern annular mode . J. Climate , 25 , 6958 – 6974 . Gill , A. , 1968 : A linear

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

appendix A we show that similar results are found using streamline coordinates, that is, the spreading across streamlines is equal to the meridional spreading in the Drake Patch. Estimates of using each method are shown later in Fig. A3 . Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. The first method equally weights each data point assuming they are independent, and therefore tends to underestimate the dispersion when there is more sampling in the middle of the tracer distribution and when a

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J. R. Ledwell, L. C. St. Laurent, J. B. Girton, and J. M. Toole

1. Introduction In the middle of the twentieth century, the prevailing view of the ocean circulation below the main pycnocline was that deep and bottom waters were subject to a wide-scale upwelling of order 10 −7 m s −1 ( Stommel and Arons 1960 ; Wyrtki 1961 ; and others). The implication of a diapycnal diffusivity of 10 −4 m 2 s −1 then followed from the idea that observed vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, radioisotopes, and oxygen between 1000- and 4000-m depth were maintained

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Jesse M. Cusack, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, and James B. Girton

.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<1929:MITRFZ>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<1929:MITRFZ>2.0.CO;2 Frajka-Williams , E. , C. C. Eriksen , P. B. Rhines , and R. R. Harcourt , 2011 : Determining vertical water velocities from Seaglider . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 28 , 1641 – 1656 , doi: 10.1175/2011JTECHO830.1 . 10.1175/2011JTECHO830.1 Fritts , D. C. , 2003 : Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere . Rev. Geophys. , 41 , 1003 , doi: 10.1029/2001RG000106 . 10.1029/2001RG000106 Gargett , A

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Emma J. D. Boland, Emily Shuckburgh, Peter H. Haynes, James R. Ledwell, Marie-José Messias, and Andrew J. Watson

fields. The second stage has been to make some quantitative comparison between the set of simulated fields (with each member of the set corresponding to a different diffusivity) and the observations and thereby to deduce a “best-estimate” diffusivity for the atmosphere. Previous studies that have taken this two-stage approach include Balluch and Haynes (1997) , Waugh et al. (1997) , Legras et al. (2003) , Haynes and Vanneste (2004) , and Legras et al. (2005) . In many of the studies described

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