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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

prescribed constant ozone, rather than using a time-varying climatology ( Son et al. 2008 ). In addition, the models had poor stratospheric resolution, with many models having an upper boundary as low as 5 hPa. Since the Brewer–Dobson circulation in the atmosphere rises to at least 1 hPa before turning and affecting the lower stratosphere middle- and high-latitude region, the whole of the stratospheric circulation of the models does not correspond closely with the atmospheric behavior. As a result such

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

sources and sinks. Alexander and Rosenlof (2003) found that parameters related to the sources and sinks varied from the tropics to the extratropics. In the AM3 application of Alexander and Dunkerton (1999) , the momentum source is represented by a broad spectrum of wave speeds (half-width of 40 m s −1 ) with a resolution of 2 m s −1 and a single horizontal wavelength of 300 km. The amplitude of the momentum source is 0.005 Pa in the northern middle and high latitudes, 0.004 Pa in the tropics, and

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