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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

-A). The performance of the newly developed relationships is then evaluated for three case studies. A summary of the results and conclusions can be found in section 5 . 2. Measurement setup a. Measurement site Hyytiälä The University of Helsinki operates a Forestry Field Station in southern Finland, in Hyytiälä (61.8439°N, 24.2875°E; 150 m above mean sea level), 220 km northwest of Helsinki ( Hari and Kulmala 2005 ). Meteorological instrumentation, including the PIP, is operated in the middle of a

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H. Dong and X. Zou

resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° and a total of 91 vertical levels from the surface to 0.01 hPa. Input from the ozone mixing ratio profile to CRTM is set to the U.S. Standard Atmosphere state. The GMI brightness temperatures are simulated assuming a clear-sky condition. Therefore, clouds and aerosols are set to zero in CRTM for GMI simulations conducted in this study. Figure 1 shows the weighting functions of the 13 GMI channels calculated from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere profile using the CRTM

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

/scattering signals of the surface and the atmosphere at 13 frequency channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz. On the one hand, observations by the DPR and the GMI high-frequency channels (>80 GHz) provide information about the microwave signature of precipitation and more specifically about snowfall ice scattering. On the other hand, observations by the low-frequency channels (>80 GHz) add information about the land surface characteristics that leads to improved detection skill by the presented algorithm. This study

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Zhaoxia Pu, Chaulam Yu, Vijay Tallapragada, Jianjun Jin, and Will McCarty

-dependent predictor is defined as follows: where is the lapse rate of transmittance for channel and varies over pixels, and is the mean lapse rate of temperature. The in (6) and (7) is computed by the following expression: where is the transmittance from the k th model level to the top of atmosphere for the j th channel and is computed during CRTM integration, while is the temperature at the k th model level. c. BC coefficients for GMI clear-sky radiances In operational HWRF, bias correction

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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

1. Introduction Numerical climate and land–atmosphere models are widely used for providing land–atmospheric predictions at different time scales. These models typically capture both atmospheric thermodynamic processes and cloud microphysics to predict the dynamics of land–atmosphere water and energy fluxes. To improve the predictions of land–atmosphere state variables and parameters, a common practice is to assimilate observations from in situ gauges, radiosondes, and satellite measurements

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

of orbiting imagers providing frequent observations of clouds and precipitation all over the globe ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ). The passive microwave retrieval of precipitation relies on the measurement of radiances at the top of the atmosphere, which are the product of the surface emission, emission and absorption by liquid rain drops and water vapor and scattering by ice particles. Vertically and horizontally polarized radiances are measured at various frequencies between 5 and 200 GHz

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

case, rainfall is below freezing level (in colored shades), mixed-phase precipitation is in the middle (in orange contours), and cloud distribution is associated with detrainment (in dashed blue contours). Fig . 4. The storm observed from space by TRMM TMI, at 0600 UTC 13 Aug 2006, (left) as Tb depression (in blue shade) in the 85-GHz (V) TMI channel. (right) The hydrometeors in the atmosphere (in g kg −1 ), in vertical–zonal cross section in the storm area (17°N), (top) with and (bottom) without

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

1. Introduction Latent heat release within the atmosphere arises from heat exchanges as water changes phase between vapor, liquid, and solid and is an important component or principal driver for many atmospheric circulations. Even at midlatitudes, latent heating (LH) can be an important part of midlatitude cyclone dynamics and the larger-scale storm track ( Willison et al. 2013 ) and can be especially important for the rapid deepening of such storms ( Whitaker and Davis 1994 ; Pirret et al

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Wesley Berg, Stephen Bilanow, Ruiyao Chen, Saswati Datta, David Draper, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Spencer Farrar, W. Linwood Jones, Rachael Kroodsma, Darren McKague, Vivienne Payne, James Wang, Thomas Wilheit, and John Xun Yang

precipitation, the addition of high-frequency channels to the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) for increased sensitivity to snowfall, and an orbit inclination of 65°, which extends observations into the middle and high latitudes. Beyond the technical improvements to the GPM Core Observatory , however, the GPM mission is a constellation-based satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors in order to improve our

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

capable of simulating three-dimensional radiative transfer primarily in the microwave to infrared parts of the spectrum using a variety of different instrument geometries ( Eriksson et al. 2011 ; Buehler et al. 2018 ). ARTS can handle scattering via the discrete ordinate iterative method or Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is used here because it is more appropriate for three-dimensional calculations. The background atmosphere for our simulations was derived from the Fort Worth

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