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Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction In the middle of the twentieth century, research in the earth sciences was concerned with delving into the workings of the individual components and how they behaved and functioned in isolation. Meteorology, oceanography, hydrology, ecology, etc., operated as highly independent disciplines, usually crossing only when they found they shared underlying principles of physics or techniques of mathematics. However, as these fields have evolved, their respective researchers

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

or extension of irrigation facilities is inevitable to feed the burgeoning population in the coming decades ( Shiklomanov 2000 ). Water used for irrigation returns to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or back to rivers as return flow, which can potentially affect the terrestrial water and energy balances ( Haddeland et al. 2006b ; Tang et al. 2007 ; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ) as well as the flow of water vapor into the atmosphere ( Boucher et al. 2004 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ; Puma and Cook

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

values around 992 hPa at 1200 UTC 14 November ( Fig. 2c ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses: mean sea level pressure (hPa, white contours) and 500-hPa geopotential height (m, shaded areas) at 0000 UTC for (left) 12, (middle) 13, and (right) 14 Nov 2004. Satellite retrievals and model simulations are discussed only for the days characterized by more intense precipitation on the basis of the surface rainfall measurements on 12, 13, and 14 November ( Fig. 3 ). The 24-h accumulated rainfall value in the center of

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

significance level of 5%. This implies that the method investigated in this study has the potential to be a practical technique to classify soil moisture into a few levels (e.g., wet, middle, and dry). 4. Discussion This paper mainly aims to confirm temporal resolution of the input variables of the model, especially surface temperature. Among the simulations of three surface temperature observations over the diurnal course, simulations of twice during daytime resulted better than those of once during

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