Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Middle atmosphere x
  • Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

-based studies (e.g., Jiang 2012 ; Kieper and Jiang 2012 ; Zagrodnik and Jiang 2014 ; Tao and Jiang 2015 ) have noted that it is primarily the azimuthal distribution of shallow and moderate convection (defined by echo tops in the lower and middle troposphere) that distinguishes TCs about to undergo significant intensification. In contrast to these studies, airborne, modeling, and other satellite-based studies have focused on deep convection (defined here as echo tops above 14 km collocated with strong

Full access
William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

1. Introduction Until recently, a single ER-2 flight over Hurricane Erin (2001) provided the only direct dropsonde observations through the full depth of the tropical cyclone (TC) outflow layer ( Halverson et al. 2006 ). Conventional aircraft observations of TCs, such as by the U.S. Air Force C-130s and the NOAA P-3s, tend to be limited to the middle to lower levels of the cyclone with a typical flight level of 700 hPa ( Aberson et al. 2006 ). Synoptic observations provided by the NOAA G-IV are

Full access
Erin B. Munsell, Fuqing Zhang, Scott A. Braun, Jason A. Sippel, and Anthony C. Didlake

storm relative, while the Fig. 2 composites are ground relative. The 2-km winds as measured by the dropsondes deployed during the third HS3 flight (16–17 September) are also indicated in Fig. 2c . Fig . 2. Storm-centered horizontal cross sections of composite 2-km wind speed (ground relative; contours filled every 2 m s −1 ) for NOAA P-3 flights in (top) Edouard, (middle) GOOD, and (bottom) GOOD_LATE at approximately (a),(d),(g) 1500 UTC 14 Sep 2014 (75 h); (b),(e),(h) 1500 UTC 15 Sep 2014 (99 h

Full access
Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

latent heat flux in the same regions of significant SST cooling ( Fig. 7e ). The latent heat fluxes are reduced by over 100 W m −2 in the region to the northwest of the surface center of Nadine ( Fig. 7f ). Fig . 7. Storm-centered composites (750 km × 750 km box around each ensemble surface center) of (top) surface sensible and (bottom) latent heat flux (W m −2 ) (color shading every 10 W m −2 and every 25 W m −2 ) overlaid (left, middle) with the 10-m wind speeds (vectors) of the GOOD composite

Full access
Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

dropsondes provide thermodynamic profiles in the middle and lower troposphere. Dropsondes released from the GH, on the other hand, provide observations of the thermodynamic environment from ~20 km (below ~100 hPa) altitude down to the surface. These observations are used to document the structure and evolution of Edouard’s warm core over several days, as well as describe the thermodynamic environment in the context of inner-core precipitation (and convective) properties (quantified using airborne radar

Full access
Lucas Merckelbach, Anja Berger, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Jeffrey R. Carpenter

) the velocities, (middle) the squared ratio of the velocities, and (right) the ratio of the velocity raised to the fourth power (solid lines). The shaded region in the corresponding color indicates the spread in the data, computed from twice the standard deviation. The histograms above the profiles show the distribution of the corresponding observations. The data from a 4-h deployment period (1751–2158 UTC 23 Jun 2017; purple), and the data from 9-h deployment period (1754 UTC 24 Jun 2017–0304 UTC

Full access