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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

these events because it was found to better capture major AR features (e.g., strong water vapor transport, narrow and elongated structure) than IWV ( Nayak et al. 2014 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015a ). Moreover, IVT was also found to be more strongly related to rainfall during AR events ( Rutz et al. 2014 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015a , b ). IVT magnitude (kg m −1 s −1 ) is calculated from specific humidity and wind speed in the atmosphere as follows: Here, q , u , and υ are specific humidity

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

and that this is in part due to a model humidity bias in the lower atmosphere. Since their work, the performance of the U.S. operational numerical weather prediction models in simulating low-level jets has improved. Lee et al. (2008) found that the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Great Plains by a general circulation model is sensitive to the choice of convection triggers, especially as they relate to saturation properties of the lower atmosphere. Previous studies have relied

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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

McBride 2000 ). Poor QPF skill hinders hydrologic applications, particularly streamflow forecasting operations ( Cuo et al. 2011 ). Fig . 1. Three major areas of interest for the IFloodS field campaign, outlined in white. Turkey River basin is in the northeast corner. The middle strip is the Iowa–Cedar Rivers basin. The South Fork Iowa River is adjacent to the south of the Iowa–Cedar Rivers basin. To support deployment of ground-based instrumentation, our team at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

-wavelength radars (see, e.g., McLaughlin et al. 2009 ; Maki et al. 2010 ; Yoshikawa et al. 2010 ). Employing a network of several identical units often compensates for X-band radars’ lack of spatial coverage. This strategy has proved economically and operationally feasible, as demonstrated by X-band networks such as those used by the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project 1 (IP1; McLaughlin et al. 2009 ), X-Band Polarimetric Radar Information (X-RAIN; Maki et al. 2010

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