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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

) provides sensitivity to lighter precipitation (missed by conventional terrestrial weather radar systems) and even the smaller ice and/or liquid particles composing the cloud itself. From its satellite vantage point, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) beam is unobstructed by elevated terrain, in contrast to ground-based radars. Although CloudSat provides global coverage, its nadir-only viewing geometry (nonscanning) results in “curtain” observations (2D slices through the atmosphere) as opposed to the 3D

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

. First, storms are usually topped by frozen hydrometeors that scatter millimeter waves to produce a distinct cold radiometric spectral signature; second, hydrometeor profile information that further improves retrieval accuracy is provided by channels seeing to different depths in the atmosphere near the 53-GHz oxygen and 183-GHz water vapor resonances ( Spina et al. 1998 ). Third, both strongly and weakly scattering storms over water usually produce strong warming signatures against the cold

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

used to conduct the simulations. In this study, only the 3ICE-graupel and 2ICE options were used with WRF. Double-nested domains were constructed with horizontal grid spacings of 9, 3, and 1 km and corresponding grids of 301 × 241, 430 × 412, and 457 × 457 for the outer, middle, and inner domains, respectively ( Fig. 4 ). A terrain-following vertical coordinate with 61 layers was constructed with resolutions ∼5–10 hPa inside the PBL and ∼20–25 hPa above the PBL. Time steps of 30, 10, and 3.333 s

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Ali Behrangi, Koulin Hsu, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

atmosphere, a strong relationship exists between cloud-top altitude and temperature. Similar to PERSIANN-CCS, three temperature threshold levels (253, 235, and 220 K) were used to articulate the vertical extent of each individual cloud patch (see Fig. 3e ). Using visual inspections and evaluations, three albedo thresholds levels (0.4, 0.55, and 0.65) were identified as appropriate to scale cloud thickness ( Fig. 3f ). A mature convective patch is expected to run across all three albedo and temperature

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Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, and Christopher W. O’Dell

fields. SSM/I has seven channels at frequencies from 19 to 85 GHz, where the atmosphere is semitransparent in clear skies and most absorption comes from total column water vapor, due to both water vapor continuum absorption and the 22-GHz line. In cloudy skies, the lower-frequency channels are sensitive to rain and cloud water and the higher-frequency channels are sensitive to snow and cloud ice as well. SSM/I observations have been corrected at ECMWF for the scan-dependent biases found by Colton

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

the AMMA Coupling the Tropical Atmosphere and the Hydrological Cycle (AMMA- CATC H) observing system ( Lebel et al. 2009 ). The distribution of gauges of the network around Niamey was optimized ( Lebel and Amani 1999 ) to obtain a good accuracy for rainfall estimation over the area at the rain event scale (typically a few hours); the number of tipping-bucket gauges was increased up to 54 for the AMMA enhanced observing period (EOP) in 2006. The upper Ouémé catchment in Benin was instrumented with

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

principles is therefore fundamental for solving the inverse problem ( Rodgers 1976 , 2000 ), and to estimate the strongly state-dependent uncertainty associated with a given retrieval. In the following, the state of the atmosphere (i.e., temperature, humidity, and hydrometeor profiles) is denoted as a vector x and the multiple-channel observations from a hypothetical microwave radiometer are indicated by a vector y . The statistical link between y and x is expressed by means of Bayes’ theorem

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