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  • Middle atmosphere x
  • 16th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary-Layer Remote Sensing (ISARS 2012) x
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Vasily Lyulyukin, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Margarita Kallistratova

atmosphere. KHB are revealed by sodar, radar, and lidar under conditions of statical stability in the presence of strong vertical shear of wind velocity. Examples of KHB observations in the lower and middle atmosphere can be found in the monograph Gossard and Hooke (2003) , as well as in reviews in DeSilva et al. (1996) and Fukao et al. (2011) and references therein. Radar observations of KHB in the free atmosphere are numerous, but in the lowest atmosphere only a small number of KHB events (a

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Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

turbulence ( Baas et al. 2010 ). The low-level jet (LLJ) is a flow, specific to stable ABLs, that has a distinct maximum of wind speed within a few hundreds of meters above ground. LLJs form in stably stratified atmospheres resulting from the small vertical exchange between atmospheric layers that favor the formation of wind shears. LLJs can originate from local circulations because of orography and/or thermal inhomogeneity of the ground surface, from inertial oscillations resulting from the nocturnal

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

resolution under all weather conditions ( Gutman et al. 2004 ). Also, unlike microwave satellite retrievals, GPS can provide accurate water vapor estimates over land. Peixoto and Oort (1992) showed that approximately 80% of the water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere at midlatitudes exists in the lowest 700 mb, so IWV serves as a good proxy for the low-level moisture that fuels precipitation. For example, using four winters of IWV measurements collected on the northern coast of California

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Laura Bianco, Daniel Gottas, and James M. Wilczak

turbulence (proportional to the spectral width of the radial velocity) is very weak at nighttime and confined to the lower part of the atmosphere and residual layers aloft, but it is more pronounced within the convective boundary layer. For the day on the right (9 October 2010), the nighttime is characterized by very strong bird contamination revealed in all three panels. The contamination produces large values of SNR, large values of spectral width (and therefore apparent turbulence), and it appears

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Leslie M. Hartten and Paul E. Johnston

1. Introduction Extensive marine stratocumulus (Sc) clouds over the southeastern Pacific Ocean play a critical role in the dynamics of the ocean–atmosphere system as well as the global atmospheric circulation in the eastern Pacific ( Klein and Hartmann 1993 ). The tops of the Sc are coincident with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Both the height z i of the inversion atop the MBL and the thickness of the Sc vary in space and time; these variations affect vertical mixing between the

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