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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

al. 2007 , 2016 ). Surface radiative cooling is closely related to the surface energy balance, which is composed of incoming and outgoing radiation and heat fluxes in the atmosphere, canopy, and soil. The complexities involved in the calculation of fluxes are substantial, especially in the case of radiation fog or ice fog. In numerical models, the parameterization of the surface energy balance is strongly related to the parameterizations of both the land surface and boundary layer. Specifically

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

1. Introduction Fog events in the Salt Lake basin in Utah, with impacts on aviation operations at the Salt Lake City International Airport (KSLC), arise in a range of flow scenarios. Typically, weak synoptic forcing and nonlinear water phase changes present challenges to numerical weather prediction (NWP) models when fog is possible. Because interactions between the land–water surface and the lower atmosphere can strongly modulate fog production and dissipation, near-surface shelter and

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

given the similarity between the analyses and observations (not shown). Liu et al. (2008a) provide additional information on the 4DWX-DPG physics packages and data assimilation. As part of the validation effort, we identify mostly clear and mostly cloudy days using a 3.3-km domain-averaged atmospheric transmittance defined as where is the domain-average downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface at time t , and is the theoretical mean downwelling top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave radiation

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