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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

parameterized for more realistic simulations and accurate predictions with coupled ocean–atmosphere–land (O–A–L) models. A fundamental first step toward improved prediction is the clear documentation of the major elements of the monsoon system and their variability within the context of the evolving OAL annual cycle. NAME employs a multiscale (tiered) approach with focused monitoring, and diagnostic and modeling activities in the core monsoon region, on the regional and continental scales ( Fig. 1 ). An

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J. Craig Collier and Guang J. Zhang

local phenomenon. It is a continental-scale system. The onset of the monsoon in northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States is associated with broad belts of decreased precipitation to the north and east of this region ( Barlow et al. 1998 ), such as over the Great Plains and northern tier of states, with expansion of the middle- and upper-level monsoon high ( Higgins et al. 1997 ). A study by Reyes and Cadet (1988) suggests that even as far away as the South Pacific, the

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

significantly improved the description and understanding of the NAM system. This includes identifying and clarifying spatially and temporally coherent relationships among the interactive physical variables of the ocean, atmosphere, and land surface. Among the most important diagnoses are the following: the NAM system’s synoptic- dynamic, and thermodynamic, mechanisms; including its circulation characteristics and their spatial and temporal variations ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Barlow

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John E. Janowiak, Valery J. Dagostaro, Vernon E. Kousky, and Robert J. Joyce

1. Introduction Precipitation is a fundamental element of the earth’s weather, water, and climate system, and is a primary link in the transfer of mass and energy between the atmosphere and ocean. Because of that, it is important to monitor variations in precipitation, yet it remains a challenge to quantify precipitation over all regions of the planet and even more of a challenge to forecast it correctly. Furthermore, even where rain gauge density is relatively dense, such as over the United

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

, middle, and high clouds, respectively. We point out that Arkin and Meisner (1987) used 235 K as the threshold temperature for convection when they developed the GOES Precipitation Index (GPI), which is used in the derivation of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation products ( Huffman et al. 2001 ; Gebremichael et al. 2005 ). For each pixel, we counted the number of cases (over a 2-month period) that have temperatures below the thresholds. During the counting, if there

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Christopher R. Williams, Allen B. White, Kenneth S. Gage, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction The North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) is a process study aimed at determining the sources and limits of predictability of warm-season precipitation over North America with an emphasis on its seasonal to interannual variability ( NAME Project Science Team 2006 ). Two of the overarching goals of NAME are to observe the North American monsoon system and its variability in relation to the seasonal and annual cycle of the coupled land surface–atmosphere– ocean system, and to

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

lowest 2–3 km of the atmosphere. The RASS provided vertical profiles of virtual potential temperature in the lowest 1.25 km. However, the RASS could not operate during the night at Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino due to the impact of its high-pitched transmitted signal on the local populace. In addition to these fixed sounding measurements, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) P-3 aircraft conducted 10 missions along the Gulf of California to study the low-level jet, gulf surges

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David J. Gochis, Christopher J. Watts, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, and Julio Cesar-Rodriguez

physiography are important for characterizing the overall monsoon climate, additional information on rainfall intensity is essential for improved understanding of the coupled land–atmosphere hydrological cycle. Detailed information on the frequency and intensity structures of rainfall is critical to developing reliable hydrologic predictions, diagnosing realistic precipitation structures that can be the basis of closing regional water budgets, developing precipitation downscaling procedures, improving

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Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

, making the SST there susceptible to relatively large diurnal SST variations. Using 4-km, 3-hourly SST from GOES, Mitchell et al. (2002) showed that diurnal SST changes in the northern GoC during June were typically 2–3 K, but could be as large as 4 K. Through its impact on the surface heat and moisture budget, the SST diurnal cycle may strongly affect the boundary layer structure, precipitation, and cloud amount in the atmosphere ( Dai and Trenberth 2004 ). Diurnal cycles in SST may also help

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