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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

profiles of area-averaged wind (longitudinal wind, meridional wind, and wind speed) are provided in Fig. 7 for the case studies. Horizontal averaging was performed over the averaging area used in Eipper et al. (2018) , 2 which was designed to capture the synoptic-scale environment of lake-effect bands. Examination of Fig. 7 reveals somewhat similar wind profiles in Cases 1 and 2 (and 3), although wind speed in the lower and middle BL is ~1–2 m s −1 greater in Case 2 than Case 1. This result is

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

1. Introduction a. Lake-effect storms and OWLeS During the winter of 2013/14, scientists from 11 institutions gathered in upstate New York to conduct a first-of-its-kind field campaign on Lake Ontario–generated lake-effect snowstorms: the Ontario Winter Lake-Effect Systems (OWLeS; Kristovich et al. 2017 ) project. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft, heavily instrumented for in situ and remote sensing of the atmosphere; three Doppler-on-Wheels (DOW) radars; five rawinsonde

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Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Kevin Knupp, Kyle Pennington, and Paul Robinson

. 19. Comparison between (top) DOW7 and (bottom) KTYX derived (middle) hydrometeor type and (right) precipitation rate at 0530 UTC 16 Dec 2013. (left) The radar reflectivity field from each radar is shown for context. The hydrometeor classes are as follow: GSH is graupel or small hail; DS is dry snow; and IIC is irregular ice crystals. The snowband is predominantly dry snow, with ice crystals along the periphery. Range rings from each radar are shown every 10 km. The misovortices were associated

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Seth Saslo and Steven J. Greybush

) observations; the lower atmosphere is highlighted because lake-effect cloud is typically found at these levels. Fig . 3. Ensemble mean RMSE (solid) and spread (standard deviation; dashed) in domain 3 during the event as compared to observed (a) surface temperature, (b) surface u component of wind, (c) lower-tropospheric temperature, and (d) lower-tropospheric u component of wind. Breaks imply that no data were available for verification. In terms of error characteristics, no free run ensemble appears

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