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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

1. Introduction Studies of atmospheric diurnal processes that are influenced by the regulated daily cycle of incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) have been taking place for over 100 yr. The seminal study of Hann (1901) was the first to address precipitation’s diurnal cycle. Observational and modeling analyses have demonstrated that diurnal processes are evident in many atmospheric quantities. These include precipitation (e.g., Hong et al. 2005 ; Yang and Smith 2006

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

field campaigns were conducted: the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001; Raymond et al. 2004 ) and the Tropical Eastern Pacific Process Study (TEPPS; Yuter and Houze 2000 ). Precipitation diurnal variations in the tropics have been studied extensively (e.g., Gray and Jacobson 1977 ; Hendon and Woodberry 1993 ; Garreaud and Wallace 1997 ; Chen et al. 1996 ; Sui et al. 1997 ; Dai 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Bowman et al. 2005

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle contributes to a large modulation of the time-mean energy budget of the earth–atmosphere system. Bergman and Salby (1997) , from radiative transfer calculations, showed that large errors can occur in the estimation of TOA (a list of acronyms is provided in Table 1 ) shortwave (∼20 W m −2 ) and longwave fluxes (∼5 W m −2 ) if the diurnal cycle is not taken into account. Chakraborty et al. (2007) showed that improvements in the diurnal cycle of low, middle

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

, middle, and high clouds was vastly improved for the construction of a multimodel superensemble compared to predictions of the member models. Special focus has been given to the regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, the eastern foothills of the Himalayas, and central Brazil where the member models produced large errors. The ensemble mean provided a slight improvement in the forecast of the diurnal change over that of the member models. The unified model carried a higher skill compared to the

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

–storm life cycle that microphysically evolves over time to produce precipitation. Based on Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Couple Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) data and numerical modeling experiments, Sui et al. (1997 , 1998 ) found that the nocturnal precipitation mode can be explained by an increase in relative humidity at night due to diurnally varying radiative cooling that is mostly controlled by surface temperature, with the resultant change in tropospheric humidity

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