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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

Coauthors , 2007 : The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 38 – 55 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM560.1 . 10.1175/JHM560.1 Judt , F. , 2020 : Atmospheric predictability of the tropics, middle latitudes, and polar regions explored through global storm-resolving simulations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 77 , 257 – 276 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-19-0116.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-19

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Tobias Selz, Lucas Fischer, and George C. Craig

-law exponent, also called the scaling exponent, as a measure of spatial variability. It has been shown by observational and modeling studies that passive scalars in strongly stratified turbulence exhibit a similar spatial scaling in the inertial range as in three-dimensional turbulence (i.e., a Fourier power law or, equivalently, a second-order structure function exponent) (e.g., Brethouwer and Lindborg 2008 ). However, recent observational studies of water vapor fluctuations in the middle and lower

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

1. Introduction Diabatic processes in the atmosphere, especially the release of latent heat through condensation and freezing, have been shown to have a large impact on atmospheric dynamics by modifying the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) distribution. Warm conveyor belts (WCB) are the predominant diabatically influenced phenomena in the midlatitudes. They are defined as broad airstreams that originate from the boundary layer of the cyclone’s warm sector and subsequently rise along

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Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth

circumglobal waves (e.g., Lee and Held 1993 ; Chang 1993 ). Although theoretical arguments for the evolution of Rossby waves in idealized setups had already been put forward in the middle of the twentieth century ( Dickinson 1978 , and references therein), their actual behavior and role in the atmosphere started being investigated in recent decades, facilitated by the increasing data availability and advances in computer performance [see Wirth et al. (2018) for a review of recent developments]. In this

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Michael Maier-Gerber, Michael Riemer, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Enrico Di Muzio, and Ron McTaggart-Cowan

–250-hPa layer-averaged PV is shown for the time when the pre-Chris cyclone develops (0000 UTC 17 June) in Fig. 7 . Comparing the shapes of the ensemble-averaged PV streamers, the forecasts from 14 June are broader and more positively tilted, with an elongated maximum in the middle of the filament ( Fig. 7a ). Predictions from the 15 June initialization more closely resemble the PV streamer identified in the analysis, with less implied westerly shear over the developing cyclone. A “notch” in the PV

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Tobias Selz, Lotte Bierdel, and George C. Craig

. N. , and K. Hamilton , 2001 : The horizontal kinetic energy spectrum and spectral budget simulated by a high-resolution troposphere–stratosphere–mesosphere GCM . J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 329 – 348 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0329:THKESA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0329:THKESA>2.0.CO;2 Koshyk , J. N. , B. A. Boville , K. Hamilton , E. Manzini , and K. Shibata , 1999 : Kinetic energy spectrum of horizontal motions in middle-atmosphere models . J

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

: Interaction of North Atlantic baroclinic wave packets and the Mediterranean storm track . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 140 , 754 – 765 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2171 . 10.1002/qj.2171 Aiyyer , A. , 2015 : Recurving western North Pacific tropical cyclones and midlatitude predictability . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 7799 – 7807 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065082 . 10.1002/2015GL065082 Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

) and http://www.cosmo-model.org for more details on the computational methods]. The model is set up with a horizontal resolution of 0.025° (about 2.5 km at 35°N) and 57 vertical levels up to 30-km height, with an enhanced vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. Shallow convection is parameterized using the mass-flux scheme of Tiedtke (1989) , while middle and high convection are explicitly computed. For all parameterized processes, the default setup of COSMO is used ( Doms et al

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Paolo Ghinassi, Georgios Fragkoulidis, and Volkmar Wirth

0022112078002773 Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp. Asselin , R. , 1972 : Frequency filter for time integrations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 100 , 487 – 490 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0487:FFFTI>2.3.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0487:FFFTI>2.3.CO;2 Chang , E. K. M. , 2005 : The role of wave packets in wave–mean flow interactions during Southern Hemisphere summer . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2467 – 2483

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Christian Barthlott and Corinna Hoose

both idealized (e.g., Adams-Selin et al. 2013 ; Dawson II et al. 2010 ) and realistic cases (e.g., Molthan and Colle 2012 ), strongly suggest using a double-moment scheme when a realistic reproduction of the atmosphere is desired ( Igel et al. 2015 ). In the Seifert and Beheng (2006a) scheme, the activation of CCN from aerosol particles is computed using precalculated activation ratios stored in lookup tables by Segal and Khain (2006) . These activation ratios depend on the properties of the

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