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Wai Kwok Wong, Stein Beldring, Torill Engen-Skaugen, Ingjerd Haddeland, and Hege Hisdal

situations occurred in 2006, 2002/03, and 1995/96. Trend studies indicate that summer droughts in southern Norway have become more severe ( Wilson et al. 2010 ), and according to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), most atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) project an increased dryness of summer soil moisture across large areas of the northern middle and high latitudes. Summer and winter droughts can be distinguished

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

, ½, or ⅔ of the total precipitation, these ratios were not deemed reliable and were excluded from Fig. 2 . Fig . 2. The proportion of snow (as water equivalent) to total precipitation compared to 2-m temperatures from selected (top),(middle) FLUXNET sites ( Fig. 1 ) and (bottom) in the WFD. Data points are illustrated only when the total precipitation exceeds 0.5 mm h −1 ; hence a snowfall–precipitation ratio of 0 indicates occurrence of rain exclusively. For the FLUXNET data— (top) ½ and 1 h and

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Kerstin Stahl, Lena M. Tallaksen, Lukas Gudmundsson, and Jens H. Christensen

) three selected anomaly levels: (a)–(c) sum of benchmarks passed for A , F , and R ; and (d)–(f) values for index T. Different from the other three indices, the extremes of z < 25 and z > 90 for the trend index T have a pass rate of over 50% of the basins, whereas the middle range of anomalies has a pass rate below 50% ( Table 3 ). Figures 5d–f show the spatial distribution of the index (and benchmarks) for three anomaly levels. For all selected levels, observed and modeled trend

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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

1997 ). Climate change was described using two 30-yr simulations performed with the coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM ECHAM5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPI-OM) ( Roeckner et al. 2003 ; Jungclaus et al. 2006 ). The simulations corresponded to the time period 2041–70 and were driven by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B1 ( Meehl et al. 2007 ). Data for climate projections was made available through WATCH. Temperature data was

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Christel Prudhomme, Simon Parry, Jamie Hannaford, Douglas B. Clark, Stefan Hagemann, and Frank Voss

cycle that are directly influenced by anthropogenic forcing (e.g., increased evaporation through higher temperatures and increased rainfall as a result of higher moisture holding capacity in a warmer atmosphere), one of the most important potential impacts of climate change is on hydrological extremes (i.e., drought and flooding). Extremes are likely to be sensitive to climate change, raising the possibility that changes in the extremes of hydrological parameters may be more detectable than changes

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