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Rolando R. Garcia

The Eighth Conference on the Middle Atmosphere was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on 7–10 January 1992. Over 100 papers were presented, emphasizing areas of current interest such as advances in numerical modeling, the dynamics of the tropical middle atmosphere, polar photochemistry and dynamics, and new observational techniques. Two sessions highlighted preliminary results from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite.

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On the General Circulation of the Atmosphere in Middle Latitudes

A Preliminary Summary Report on Certain Investigations Conducted at the University of Chicago during the Academic Year 1946–1947

Staff Members of the Department of Meteorology of the University of Chicago

SUMMARY

A synoptic, theoretical and experimental study of the general circulation of the atmosphere in middle latitudes and of the major perturbations superimposed on this circulation pattern was conducted by a group of research workers at the University of Chicago during the academic year 1946–1947. The principal results of these investigations are summarized below in a series of specific statements. Not all of these conclusions are new, and some require further verification, but it is hoped that they may be of some use as a starting point for further discussions and investigations of the general circulation of the atmosphere.

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NINTH CONFERENCE ON MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE

Hyatt Regency Monterey, 6 - 10 June 1994, Monterey, California

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Jerome Pressman

A computation has been made of the seasonal and latitudinal variation of the diurnal temperature changes in the ozonosphere. There was assumed a uniform cooling rate over a twenty-four hour period which exactly balanced the heating due to absorption by ozone of solar energy. The computations indicate that the diurnal temperature variation curve is relatively constant with latitude up to about 75 °N Latitude. The maximum diurnal temperature variation is at about 45 km.

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

, such as those that often accompany large radar and/or rocket facilities, have made especially valuable contributions to GW studies. This is because no single instrument can define all of the atmospheric properties and spatial and temporal variability needed to fully quantify the local GW field. Examples of these facilities include the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N); the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska (65.1°N); the Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N

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Minghua Zheng, Luca Delle Monache, Xingren Wu, F. Martin Ralph, Bruce Cornuelle, Vijay Tallapragada, Jennifer S. Haase, Anna M. Wilson, Matthew Mazloff, Aneesh Subramanian, and Forest Cannon

the data gap in the lower part of the atmosphere. To summarize, a clear gap in nonradiance and clear-sky radiance data available for studying and modeling ARs exists from near the surface to the middle troposphere. All-sky microwave radiance data cannot fully fill the gap mainly due to the removal of precipitation-affected data and the small weights of the data under AR conditions. Zhu et al. (2016) found that the forecast impact of adding all-sky radiances are overall neutral in the Northern

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Anthony G. Barnston, Michael K. Tippett, Michelle L. L'Heureux, Shuhua Li, and David G. DeWitt

autocorrelations or transition statistics), neurological networks, or analogues. The dynamical models, based primarily on the physical equations of the ocean–atmosphere system, range from relatively simple and abbreviated physics to comprehensive fully coupled or anomaly coupled models. Some models were introduced during the course of the study period, or replaced a predecessor model. Many of the dynamical models have been upgraded throughout the study period, while the statistical models have remained more

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Edwin P. Gerber, Amy Butler, Natalia Calvo, Andrew Charlton-Perez, Marco Giorgetta, Elisa Manzini, Judith Perlwitz, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Fabrizio Sassi, Adam A. Scaife, Tiffany A. Shaw, Seok-Woo Son, and Shingo Watanabe

stratosphere to corrupt a surface forecast. A number of NWP centers now include a better representation of the stratosphere to improve short-range forecasts, as illustrated in Fig. 2 . The improvement stems in part from the ability to assimilate data from satellite channels that project into the troposphere but extend significantly into the stratosphere. These broad channels cannot be effectively incorporated without a representation of the physics of the middle atmosphere. Clarifying the extent to which

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Walter A. Robinson

WETS—the Workshop on Extra-Tropical SST anomalies—was convened to review our present understanding of how the middle- and high-latitude ocean interacts with the atmosphere. Here, the author discusses some of the new information and results presented at the workshop and briefly describes some promising directions for further research.

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