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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

occurred at 40°S, where the 4 W m −2 of warming in the upper 750 m was more than 4 times the global average. In the present work, this spatial inhomogeneity in ocean warming is explained by the deepening of isopycnal surfaces that signal the spinup of deep ocean gyres. The most energetic patterns of extratropical variability in the lower atmosphere are the annular modes—the Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM), or Arctic Oscillation, and its counterpart, the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon altimetry data analysis. Property transport by eddy activity appears to be particularly important across the ACC where there can be no mean geostrophic flow across mass transport streamlines ( De Szoeke and Levine 1981 ). The ocean loses a substantial amount of heat to the atmosphere south of the ACC, however, requiring a poleward heat flux. A current meter study south of Australia by Phillips and Rintoul (2000) found that the 0.9 PW of heat transported poleward

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Lee-Lueng Fu

. 6a is the zonal dependence of the amplitude of the mode with m = 1. The amplitude minimum is at the middle of the basin as the observations show in Fig. 3 . The phase of the mode ( Fig. 6b ) has a much more complicated pattern than that of the observations. The rapid phase variation in the middle of the basin off the equator is caused by high meridional modes, whose presence in reality is unlikely because of the enhanced dissipation at small scales. There is a convergence of phase at the

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

component of the net heat storage change actually occurs below 2000-m depth. We note that in our solution the total increase in heat content occurs after the last ENSO event. In the past, temporal changes in individual depth ranges essentially compensated each other by a simultaneous cooling of the upper layer and a warming at depth. In the middle layer this warming is at first gradual and then accelerates toward the later years. In contrast, the bottom layer shows a steady increase in heat content with

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

) wide, passing through the middle of Gibraltar Strait from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. The presence of this trench interrupts the Moroccan coast–Gulf of Cadiz current, resulting in a much smaller Atlantic–Mediterranean sea level difference than any of the other experiments. Figure 8 shows depth-averaged currents near Gibraltar Strait for the “baseline” and for the “trench” experiments. The baseline experiments show that the Moroccan coastal current is accelerated as it nears Tangier, that

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Reiner Schlitzer

since last surface contact) and could establish overturning time scales and water mass renewal times for individual basins and the global ocean. Other tracers, such as tritium, 3 He, and 39 Ar, have also been used to estimate deep water formation and transport rates. However, the substances most extensively sampled and used since the 1980s are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs are man-made gases that are released into the atmosphere in growing amounts since about 1940. They dissolve in surface

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