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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

/Kuroshio Extension affects the rapid intensification of an explosive cyclone using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean regional model, CReSS–NHOES. This study highlighted an explosive cyclone that migrated northeastward along the southern periphery of those warm currents in the middle of January 2013. The major findings of the present study are briefly summarized as follows: The evolutions of surface fronts of a cyclone simulated by CReSS–NHOES closely resemble the Shapiro–Keyser model. A bent-back front

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

1. Introduction One of the most fundamental aspects of earth's climate is the latitudinal dependence of the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance and resulting equator-to-pole heat transport by the ocean and atmosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmosphere carry nearly equal amounts of the heat northward in the tropics (up to ~15°N), while the atmosphere transports most of the heat poleward of ~40°N (e.g., Trenberth and Caron 2001 ). In between the two latitude bands, the

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<0313:TIOTSS>2.0.CO;2 . Feliks , Y. , M. Ghil , and E. Simonnet , 2004 : Low-frequency variability in the midlatitude atmosphere induced by an oceanic thermal front . J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 961 – 981 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0961:LVITMA>2.0.CO;2 . Frankignoul , C. , 1985 : Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes . Rev. Geophys. , 23 , 357 – 390 , doi: 10.1029/RG023i004p00357

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Shusaku Sugimoto

1. Introduction In the extratropical North Pacific, vigorous heat related to the turbulent heat flux (THF; the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes) is released from the ocean to the atmosphere in winter ( Fig. 1a ). The THF release in winter is predominantly controlled by surface wind, which has a negative local correlation with sea surface temperature (SST) ( Davis 1976 ; Frankignoul 1985 ; Iwasaka et al. 1987 ; Wallace and Jiang 1987 ; Lau and Nath 1994 ; Nakamura et al. 1997

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

et al. 2005 ; Anderson et al. 2007 ; Zhai et al. 2011 ), ocean–ecosystem coupled models forced by atmospheric data ( Oschlies 2004 ; Marzeion et al. 2005 ; Manizza et al. 2008 ), atmosphere–ocean coupled models using satellite-derived chlorophyll data ( Shell et al. 2003 ; Gildor and Naik 2005 ; Ballabrera-Poy et al. 2007 ; Gnanadesikan and Anderson 2009 ; Gnanadesikan et al. 2010 ; Lin et al. 2011 ; Turner et al. 2012 ; Liang and Wu 2013 ), and fully coupled models including

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

of the forcing, which includes the ENSO teleconnections. However, the differences between lead and lag are even larger when ENSO is removed (not shown), confirming that lag ≤ 1 month mixes the atmospheric forcing and response. Fig . 3. Lagged regressions of (left) sea level pressure (SLP), (middle) Z250, and (right) Ekman pumping (EKMP) anomaly fixed in ONDJ onto the KE index for lags given on the left (month). Positive (negative) lags mean the KE leads (lags) the atmosphere. Contour intervals

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

Magnusdottir 2014 ; O’Reilly et al. 2016 ). The diabatic forcing associated with an SST anomaly initiates a baroclinic adjustment in the atmosphere near the forcing region ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Li and Conil 2003 ; Ferreira and Frankignoul 2005 ), which is linear about the sign and size of the SST anomaly ( Deser et al. 2007 ). However, the overall large-scale response has an equivalent barotropic structure with no strong resemblance to the prescribed SST anomaly pattern ( Ferreira and Frankignoul

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

1. Introduction It is well established that coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropics, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), exerts extensive influence on extratropical climatic conditions via atmospheric teleconnection. In contrast, the influence of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on large-scale extratropical atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant in the presence of the prevailing dominant remote influence from the tropics

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

1. Introduction It has been recognized for decades that for basin-scale air–sea interactions in midlatitudes, coupling between the atmosphere and ocean is largely linear and passive in nature ( Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ; Frankignoul 1985 ). In this passive air–sea coupling, the ocean responds to white-noise atmospheric internal variability through turbulent air–sea heat fluxes, giving rise to a red-noise response in sea surface temperature (SST; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ; Hasselmann

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

winter season turbulent heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean in both the KER and GSR. The conclusion is entirely consistent with the finding of SH10 based on NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, pointing to the critical role of synoptic-scale storms in the climate system in the WBC regimes. Fig . 4. Total boreal winter THF (top plot), non-event-day THF (middle plot), and event-day THF (bottom plot) for 20CRV2 (dashed), NCEP–NCAR reanalysis (black solid), and NCEP CFSR (gray solid) reanalysis in the (a

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