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Jinyang Du and Qiang Liu

vertically polarized microwave radiation at 12 channels and six frequencies ranging from 6.9 to 89.0 GHz. Its observations at moderately low frequencies are very sensitive to land water in various forms, such as soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow, and are little affected by atmosphere conditions. AMSR-E was launched in June 2002 and functioned well until October 2011. During this period, TGD experienced two impounding stages: the initial stage of impoundment with a water level increasing

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

950 mm. Mean annual values of potential and effective evapotranspiration are about 780 and 460 mm, respectively. The climate of the river basin can be classified as subhumid–humid, following Thornthwaite ( Thornthwaite 1948 ). Mean annual flow is about 150.1 Mm 3 yr −1 , whereas the available groundwater resources amount to ~103 Mm 3 yr −1 . The middle valley of the Alcantara River is characterized by perennial surface flows enriched by spring water arising from the big aquifer of the Etna

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

area in 1992 (bottom-left panel), 2001 (bottom-middle panel), and 2006 (bottom-right panel). Less change is observed in the upstream area, while urbanization has intensified around Fair Oaks and city of Folsom. The fact that the watershed is less urbanized makes it more suitable for our study to consider realistic future scenarios of LULC change and imperviousness under population pressure and economic development. 3. Data and methodology 3.1. Methodology 3.1.1. General approach The objective of

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