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John Marshall, David Ferreira, J-M. Campin, and Daniel Enderton

1. Introduction In an attempt to improve our understanding of the nature of the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean in setting the climate of the planet, we have begun a series of highly idealized geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) experiments with a numerical model of the coupled atmosphere–ocean–ice system. Our goal is not to simulate the present climate, or that of any other period in Earth history. Rather, it is to study the details of a coupled system in which complications of

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Michael J. Ring and R. Alan Plumb

top two panels of the figure. In the upper troposphere there are centers of opposite-signed wind anomalies, but the strongest wind response occurs at the latitude of the forcing, with the same sign as the forcing. Noteworthy as well are the magnitudes of the direct responses—they are weaker in the lower and middle troposphere than those derived from the full model run (this is true throughout the atmosphere for the run using forcing from trial 3). Clearly, the direct responses alone can explain

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Yohai Kaspi and Glenn R. Flierl

1. Introduction Strong zonal winds dominate the atmospheres of the four big outer planets of the solar system. All four planets exhibit latitudinal banding and strong jet streams, where the wind velocities on Saturn are the strongest reaching more than 400 m s −1 near the equator, and Jupiter has the most structure with at least six alternating bands of east–west winds in each hemisphere ( Ingersoll 1990 ; Porco et al. 2003 ). Unlike Earth, the solid centers are small fractions of the giant

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M. L. R. Liberato, J. M. Castanheira, L. de la Torre, C. C. DaCamara, and L. Gimeno

observed in composites of the displacement-type SSW events. Acknowledgments Dr. Laura de La Torre appreciates the grant she received from the University of Vigo to visit the University of Aveiro. REFERENCES Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30937 – 30946

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Adam P. Showman

. 1999 ; Porco et al. 2003 ). In contrast, most two-dimensional turbulence studies use random forcing that occurs everywhere simultaneously and is confined to a small range of wavenumbers. This shortcoming prevents a robust assessment of jet formation in the giant-planet context. Furthermore, most published turbulence investigations that focus on jets have been purely two dimensional, hence precluding the vortex stretching (and associated horizontal divergence) that can be crucial in atmospheres

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R. K. Scott and L. M. Polvani

-P. Huang , 2001 : Universal n −5 spectrum of zonal flows on giant planets. Phys. Fluids , 13 , 1545 – 1548 . Garcia , R. R. , 1987 : On the mean meridional circulation of the middle atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 3599 – 3609 . Guillot , T. , 1999 : Interiors of giant planets inside and outside the solar system. Science , 286 , 72 – 77 . Haynes , P. H. , 1998 : The latitudinal structure of the quasi-biennial oscillation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 2645 – 2670

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Yasuko Hio and Shigeo Yoden

eight values of r from 0 to 0.09 indicated by downward arrows a–h in Fig. 3a . The top row shows the time variation of the zonal-mean zonal flow at 65.1°S, while the middle and bottom rows show the polar diagrams of the complex amplitude of Waves 2 and 1, such as Figs. 8 and 11 in HY04 . The trajectory of each wave component of the relative vorticity [ ζ s ( ϕ s , t ) e isλ , s = 1, 2] in a Re ζ s − Im ζ s plane gives the time variation of its amplitude and phase by | ζ s | and arg ζ s

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Robert X. Black and Brent A. McDaniel

Program) and NASA’s Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program under Grant NAG5-13492. The NCEP-NCAR reanalyses come from the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center from their Web site at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/ . Finally, we would like to thank the reviewers for their helpful guidance during the peer review process. REFERENCES Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

Astronomy Research Council. Thanks are also due to the technical team at LEGI/Coriolis for their excellent assistance with the design and execution of the experiments, and to Profs B. Galperin and S. B. Sukoriansky for comments and discussions during the course of this study. REFERENCES Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp . Balk , A. , 1991 : A new invariant for Rossby wave systems. Phys. Lett. A , 155 , 20 – 24

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Gang Chen, Isaac M. Held, and Walter A. Robinson

generation: to the extent that wave activity radiates away from this source, eddy momentum fluxes converge into this region, and this momentum is removed from the atmosphere by surface friction through the generation of surface westerlies. Using a global two-level primitive equation model, R97 argues that a reduction in surface drag results, first of all, in an enhancement of the barotropic component of the flow, with relatively modest changes in the baroclinic component. But these changes in

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