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J. A. Whitehead

). The temperature mode flows more rapidly. Flow in the middle tube reverses direction compared to the fresh mode so that rapid inflow of middepth saltwater from the large basin mixes in the small basin, with freshwater entering through the top tube, and the cold mixture exits through the bottom tube. Theory shows that it is necessary to have the top tube more constricted than the two others to produce the flow reversal in the middle tube. It is this flow reversal that leads to abrupt transitions and

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

atmosphere are today on the order of 1 TW (10 12 W). Keeping everything else fixed, let us suppose, to derive a time scale, that the ocean below 1000 m undergoes a temperature change (either sign) of 1°C. Then, (using α ≈ 1.7 × 10 −4 °C −1 and h ≈ −4000 m). Cooling of the abyss lowers the center of mass and implies a reduction in PE that could be released as kinetic energy (KE) or transferred through the sea surface; correspondingly, a warming represents an increase in PE, which could derive from

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow. J. Fluid Mech. , 89 , 609 – 646 . Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp . Arbic , B. K. , and G. R. Flierl , 2004 : Baroclinically unstable geostrophic turbulence in the limits of strong and weak bottom Ekman friction: Application to midocean eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 2257 – 2273 . Arbic , B. K. , G. R. Flierl , and R. B

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

the Batchelor scale κ / σ is resolved ( σ is the horizontal strain rate, computed for the steady state). At each time and vertical level, the tracer field is converted to area coordinates and the squared equivalent length (see Shuckburgh and Haynes 2003 ) is calculated for a discrete range of 100 tracer values between the maximum 1/2 and minimum −1/2. Laplacian diffusion erodes the maxima and minima slightly, but for all tracer contour values near the middle of the range, the equivalent

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