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Hui Wu

. Terms of order of α 2 or higher were dropped. For a typical r = 0.0005 m s −1 and middle latitude of 27°N, α 2 = O (0.1) requires h > 23 m, which is not a strong restriction for a regular shelf, and therefore the associated terms can be safely dropped. Substituting (6) and (7) into (5) yields (8) J ⁡ ( g h f , η ) + ∇ ⋅ ( g r f 2   ∇ η ) = 0 , where J is the Jacobian operator. Equation (8) suggests that the propagation of pressure anomaly follows an “advection–diffusion” equation

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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

nonpropagating drag found in Pierrehumbert (1987) and Garner (2005) , for which the local momentum sink is assumed to persist into steady state. Fig . 8. Maximum computed (top) momentum flux, (middle) form drag, and (bottom) predicted drag from linear theory for all simulations. The values are nondimensionalized by the saturation drag F sat = ρ 0 U 3 N −1 . Finally, in Fig. 9 we show the evolution of the LOTS for the simulations in Fig. 6 for time t ≤ 16 T ex . We note that the separated portion

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

measurements, utilizing a vertical microstructure profiler, were conducted during the middle cruise (using the R/V Roger Revelle from 26 November to 4 December 2016), which are the main focus of this study. Here, we examine turbulent-mixing and submesoscale processes around Velasco Reef ( Fig. 1 ). Fig . 1. (a) Bathymetry (m) in the vicinity of Palau is shown. The Velasco Reef is located at the northern edge of Palau along the Kyushu–Palau Ridge, just northwest of the deep Palau Trench. The thin black

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

small energy flux (<5 W m −1 ) oriented toward the canyon mouth (down-canyon) is observed over the sidewalls on the north side of the canyon ( Fig. 4a ). Energy flux is elevated in one or more middepth swaths on all transect lines ( Fig. 5 ); up-canyon flux on lines SL2, SL3, and SL5 is concentrated in a middepth band below the canyon rim. We expect the vertical structure of energy flux in mode-1 waves to exhibit minimal energy flux in the middle of the water column and maxima at the top and bottom

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

data over bathymetric features in the Caribbean Sea. A study of internal waves generated by mesoscale eddies by Clément et al. (2016) finds correlation between eddy decay and higher-frequency energy content in moored velocity records. We are unaware of other direct low-frequency lee-wave observations in the ocean and one has to revert to atmospheric observations of mountain waves for further observational studies. Tidal motions play only a subordinate role in the atmosphere, making the

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

mechanism for redistributing rather than dissipating balanced energy by homogenizing the generating/trapping current. Internal-wave redistribution of balanced flows is a well-established phenomenon in the atmosphere, in particular for (i) mountain lee waves ( Alexander 2003 ; Garner 2005 ), (ii) driving the quasi-biennial oscillation ( Lindzen and Holton 1968 ), (iii) driving the Madden–Julian oscillation ( Biello and Majda 2005 ), (iv) influencing middle atmosphere winds ( Holton and Alexander 2000

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