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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

climate models that provide data on cloud fraction. Provided are the model name, main institution running the model, horizontal resolution on a latitude–longitude grid, total number of vertical levels, vertical levels below 700 hPa, and main literature reference. (For expansions of acronyms, see .) 2) YoTC To address specific challenges related to simulating prominent phenomena of the tropical atmosphere, the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and The

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

physical processes of the precipitation changes that are responsible for those reductions. 3. Model simulations and evaluation The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2005 ) regional model, version 3.1.1, is used with 32 vertical levels, 90-km horizontal resolution, and a time step of 3 min. The top of the atmosphere is set at 20 hPa. Figure 2 shows the full model domain with

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Zewdu T. Segele, Michael B. Richman, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

potential predictors Guided by Part I , the full three-dimensional state of the regional atmosphere and global SST was represented by a set of potential March predictors of Kiremt (JJAS) rainfall. Raw atmospheric predictors consisted of gridpoint values for 50°N–40°S, 30°W–90°E of geopotential height (Φ), temperature ( T ), horizontal wind ( u , υ ), vertical velocity ( w ), and specific humidity ( q ) at standard pressure levels, and MSLP. To accommodate potential interaction effects between these

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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

) the relationships between cumulus clouds and the soil–plant–atmosphere exchange of heat, carbon, and water at the SGP ACRF site; (iii) how land cover changes (including the winter wheat harvest) impact surface heat, carbon, and water fluxes, and whether those changes affect local and regional cumulus cloud formation at the SGP ACRF; (iv) how SGP land surface processes affect atmospheric aerosol loading and chemistry, and the resulting effects on cumulus cloud microphysics and macrophysics; and (v

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