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Riccardo Farneti

or in their phase speeds. The main goals of the study presented in this paper are the identification of the atmospheric influence and possible positive feedback on the oceanic Rossby wave propagation. We will focus on the possibility of a positive coupling between the oceanic wave and the atmosphere at middle latitudes, trying to identify a coupled wave mode in a fully nonlinear fully coupled ocean–atmosphere model and its subsequent response in the wave propagation. The GM99 ’s mechanical

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Kirk Bryan, Syukuro Manabe, and Ronald C. Pacanowski

computations made from observed data consistently.~how that the maximum heat transport by ocean currents is shifted 10%20- equatorward relative to themaximum poleward heat transport by the atmosphere in middle latitudes. The effect of the zonal wind inenhancing poleward heat transport at low latitudes and suppressing it in middle latitudes is offered as anexplanation.1. Introduction In Part I of this series (Manabe ,t al., 1975) the stateof the atmosphere is described for two numerical experiments with

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L. V. Worthington

Hole, Mass. 02543(Manuscript received 14 January 1972, in revised form 30 March 1972)ABSTRACT Regions of large (>60 kcal cm-~ year-x) net annual heat flux from the oceans to the atmosphere arefound only on the western sides of Northern Hemisphere oceans and in the Norwegian Sea, according toBudyko. It has been assumed that these negative heat fluxes are the result of the transport of warm waterto middle and high latitudes by major ocean currents, specifically the Gulf Stream, the North

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Rana A. Fine, Joseph L. Reid, and H. Göte Östlund

with the atmosphere, a laterally ventilatedintermediate region (between the mixed layer and at most the winter-outcrop isopycnal) that exchangeson decadal time scales with the atmosphere, and a deeper layer penetrated by vertical diffusion alone,with a longer atmospheric exchange time scale. The greatest percentage of the tritium inventory of theNorth Pacific is in the intermediate region. This indicates that such lateral ventilations, which take placefrom all high-latitude regions, are a major

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Lakshmi Kantha and Hubert Luce

, and restore stability. However, the precise value of the critical Richardson number at which instability ensues is affected by viscosity, by diffusivity ( Thorpe et al. 2013 ), and possibly by background ambient turbulence ( Li et al. 2015 ). Shear instabilities can also be triggered by gravity waves propagating into the interior, which are the principal source of mixing [e.g., the recent review by Tsuda (2014) ] in the middle and upper atmosphere (10–100 km). However, midlevel cloud

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Robert G. Gallimore and David D. Houghton

ocean using the observed andsimulated fluxes and observed ocean heat storage dataprovides indications of the expected behavior of SSTin an interactive mixed layer ocean-atmosphere model.The 50-m mixed layer ocean formulation gives a reasonable amplitude of SST for realistic estimates ofocean heat storage. However, for all estimates of heatstorage, the phase of annual cycle of SST lagged byabout one month the observed in middle latitudes.Furthermore, the formulation fails to simulate the observed

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Syukuro Manabe, Kirk Bryan, and Michael J. Spelman

overturning results ina very effective mixing of heat in a thick oceanic layer,thereby delaying the warming of the CircumpolarOcean surface. The deep cell under the middle latitude westerliesin the Southern Hemisphere owes its existence to theabsence of a meridional barrier at the Drake Passage.Bryan et al. (1988) investigated this issue by use of acoupled ocean-atmosphere model with a sector computational domain bounded by two meridians 120-longitude apart and an idealized geography. Theycompared the

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Fabrice Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Tanos Elfouhaily

Hasselmann [1971 , Eq. (18) ] and is not modified in a rotating frame because the depth-integrated Coriolis force acting on the surface layer (4) is equal to − f × M w and thus cancels the Hasselmann stress that we have removed from our definition of T̂ int , yielding with and T a the usual wind stress, equal to the total atmosphere to ocean momentum flux [see Hasselmann (1971) and our appendix ]. Although T a depends crucially on the sea state, we assume that it is a known forcing that may

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should bemultiplied by 5/3. A line of type was misplaced in the article "On theObserved Annual Cycle in the Ocean-Atmosphere HeatBalance Over the Northern Hemisphere" by AbrahamH. O~Srt and Thomas H. Vonder Harr (J. Phys.Oceanogr., 6, 781-800): Thus, line 26 should follow line 1 in the right-handcolumn of p. 792 so that, after correction, the two complete sentences involved should read as follows: Thetransfer mechanism at low latitudes is through meanmeridional circulations and at middle and

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David P. Marshall, Richard G. Williams, and Mei-Man Lee

1. Introduction Geostrophic eddies provide an advective transport of tracers in the atmosphere ( Plumb and Mahlman 1987 ) and in the ocean ( Gent et al. 1995 ). Recently, there has been much activity in developing parameterizations of the eddy-induced transport for coarse-resolution ocean models. An important issue that remains unresolved is whether the eddy-induced transport is related to gradients of isopycnic layer thickness, as advocated by Gent et al. (1995) , or isopycnic gradients of

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