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S. Joseph Munchak, Robert Meneghini, Mircea Grecu, and William S. Olson

winds, but several investigators have taken advantage of existing platforms with these measurements (e.g., TRMM and Aquarius ) or coincident overpasses of scatterometer and passive microwave radiometers to elucidate further information about the atmosphere and sea state than is possible from either instrument type alone. Studies based on the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR) have often used the TMI-based wind retrievals as a reference to develop geophysical model functions

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Robert Meneghini, Hyokyung Kim, Liang Liao, Jeffrey A. Jones, and John M. Kwiatkowski

) estimates over (top) ocean and (bottom) land assuming p = 6 and a 1-dB path attenuation at Ku band. Although Fig. 3 gives single values (one each for land and ocean) for the standard deviation of the NRCS at a given angle, these values represent spatial averages of the data from 35°S to 35°N. Shown in Fig. 5 are the standard deviations of σ 0 (Ku) (top panel), σ 0 (Ka) (middle panel), and [σ 0 (Ka) − σ 0 (Ku)] (bottom panel) on a 0.5° × 0.5° latitude–longitude grid for an incidence angle of 3

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

. Combining both direct (gauges) and remote (radar/radiometer) measurement techniques, using ground and in-orbit observations complemented by the state-of-the-art atmosphere simulations, the GPM constellation offers full global coverage of rain and snow every 30 min at a resolution of only 0.1° and a latency of only a few hours. Freely available precipitation products are implemented across a spectrum of decision-making scientific tools, ranging from hydrology to world health. To ensure user demands for

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

the atmosphere in the range bin, and these scattering properties are used to simulate the attenuated Ka-band reflectivities, as well as the upwelling brightness temperatures, associated with the profile. To describe the PSD, the normalized gamma distribution ( Testud et al. 2001 ) is used to relate the number density of precipitation particles to their size, that is, Here, is the intercept of the normalized distribution (equivalent to in an exponential distribution), is the mass

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