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C. Faccani, F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, A. Agusti-Panareda, F. Karbou, P. Moll, J.-P. Lafore, M. Nuret, F. Hdidou, and O. Bock

(solid line) is observed for AMMA (black) for both the horizontal wind component ( Fig. 2 , top and middle) and the temperature ( Fig. 2 , bottom). The improvement is larger for V than for U , and is larger in the lower troposphere than in the stratosphere. The changes in temperature extend to the whole atmosphere, with the largest impact seen in the stratosphere. Negligible impact on the AMMA experiment is observed for the specific humidity (not shown), while AMMABC only shows an improvement on

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Françoise Guichard, Nicole Asencio, Christophe Peugeot, Olivier Bock, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Xuefeng Cui, Matthew Garvert, Benjamin Lamptey, Emiliano Orlandi, Julia Sander, Federico Fierli, Miguel Angel Gaertner, Sarah C. Jones, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Andrew Morse, Mathieu Nuret, Aaron Boone, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Patricia de Rosnay, Bertrand Decharme, Philip P. Harris, and J.-C. Bergès

evapotranspiration, together with atmospheric water transport, is required for an accurate estimation of water budgets (e.g.; Drusch and Viterbo 2007 ). Such estimates, therefore, require the modeling of atmospheric processes and land–ocean–atmosphere interactions over a range of temporal and spatial scales. For example, the diurnal cycle of solar radiation over West Africa is responsible for very significant diurnal modulations of atmospheric convection, whether dry, moist, shallow, or deep precipitating

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Sen Chiao and Gregory S. Jenkins

forecasts were integrated until 1200 UTC 22 August 2006. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme used for this study was the Yonsei University PBL scheme ( Hong and Dudhia 2003 ). The atmospheric radiation scheme accounts for longwave [i.e., the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM); Mlawer et al. (1997) ] and shortwave ( Dudhia 1989 ) transfers and interactions with the atmosphere, clouds, and the surface. Precipitation was produced from both grid-scale condensation and convection in the 25-km

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