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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

1. Introduction The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) has been on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellite series for more than 30 yr. There are 20 channels in the HIRS instrument, providing measurement in a spatial resolution of approximately 20 km at nadir. Among these channels, channels 7, 8, 10, and 11 are designed to measure the surface and lower-atmosphere temperature and humidity. Central wavenumbers for these channels are

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

. 2007 ; Lenn et al. 2007 ) or to assess their spatial structure (e.g., Dong et al. 2007 ). The Southern Ocean has not benefited from an array of upper-ocean flux moorings, of the type used for the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere ( TOGA)– Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) in the tropical Pacific, for example. In contrast to the Southern Ocean, in the Arctic Ocean turbulent heat fluxes and meteorological variables were collected from October 1997 to October 1998 during the Surface Heat Budget of

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

(precipitable water), and W i is column-integrated cloud ice condensate. The term denoted by the subscript “CHM” represents latent heat arising from a parameterized source of water vapor in the middle atmosphere from the model chemistry routine, which is small ( Suarez 2011 ). The notation “FIL” refers to tendencies associated with the “filling” of spurious negative water ( Suarez 2011 ), which was found to be negligible in all cases. The term ANA ( E ) is the sum of contributions to the analysis

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

negligible for the annual mean but may be significant on monthly time scales depending on the local condition. On the right-hand side, the term denoted by the subscript “CHM” represents a parameterized source of water vapor in the middle atmosphere from the model chemistry routine and is small ( GMAO 2008 ). The notation “FIL” refers to tendencies associated with the “filling” of spurious negative water, which was found to be negligible in all cases. In atmospheric science, the quantity of precipitation

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