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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) refer to narrow channels of enhanced water vapor transport concentrated in the lower atmosphere ( Zhu and Newell 1994 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). Occupying less than 10% of the earth’s circumference, ARs account for over 90% of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). While ARs occur globally, their impacts are most prominent when they make landfall and interact with the topography of the west coast areas of midlatitude

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

copies of explicit cloud-resolving model simulations replace ill-posed parameterization of subgrid convection and cloud processes in GEOS-4. This hybrid structure of the climate model enables a more realistic representation of convection without using ill-posed convective parameterization, improving many cloud-related features, such as the diurnal cycle of precipitation ( Tao et al. 2009 ), land–atmosphere interactions ( Mohr et al. 2013 ), and distributions of ice water content (Chern et al. 2015

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

networks setup in Benin (Sudanese climate) and in Niger (Sahelian climate) since the early 1990s have been operated as an element of the Couplage de l’Atmosphère Tropicale et Cycle Hydrologique (CATCH) observatory of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program ( Lebel et al. 2010 ). Both networks are made of 40–45 rain gauges covering a square area of 1° ( Fig. 1 ). Gauges are automatic tipping buckets with a tip every 0.5 mm cumulated depth, leading to a delay of 30 min between two

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

1. Introduction Precipitation is a vital component of the water cycle, connecting Earth’s surface and atmosphere. It is also a major input for many hydrological models, as it is the driving force behind all hydrologic processes on Earth’s surface. Accurate information regarding the frequency and quantity of precipitation enables a better understanding of Earth’s water cycle. In the modern era, spaceborne platforms have provided insights on the character of global-scale precipitation

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

snowfall category. Fig . 2. (top) CloudSat CPR reflectivity factor (dB Z ) profiles from the 2B-GEOPROF product, (middle) snowfall rate retrievals (mm h −1 ) from the 2C-SNOW-PROFILE product, and (bottom) cloud classifications from the 2B-CLDCLASS product for a section of orbit 14138 on 24 Dec 2008. ECMWF temperature profiles (K) are also shown in the top (thin black lines). The thick black solid line is Greenland’s land surface from the digital elevation database contained in the 2B-GEOPROF product

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