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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

-explained variance in Fig. 3 . For the sake of clarity, the time series plots are shown only over 2007–10 whereas the scatterplots cover the entire analysis period. Fig . 4. (a),(b),(d),(e) Time series of original (black curves) and reconstructed (red curves) anomalous fields for (top) 2007–08 and (middle) 2009–10 and (c),(f) scatterplots of original ( x axis) vs reconstructed ( y axis) anomalous fields during winter 1988–2017 for (left) OLR (W m −2 ) averaged over (10°S–10°N, 70°–100°E) and (right) U200 (m s

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama

convection during nighttime. Warner et al. (2003) and Mapes et al. (2003b) proposed that an ascent motion in the lower troposphere, which was due to gravity waves emanating from the nighttime radiative cooling of the elevated terrain of the Andes, destabilized the offshore atmosphere west of the Pacific coast of Panama and Columbia. Love et al. (2011) and Hassim et al. (2016) suggested the role of gravity waves emanating from convective systems over land. While diabatic heating within convective

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Fadli Syamsudin, Urip Haryoko, and Biao Geng

physical processes of the offshore migration and proposed possible mechanisms based on analyses of available observational data such as those from satellites, weather radars, and radiosondes launched from land sites, as well as numerical experiments. Warner et al. (2003) and Mapes et al. (2003b) proposed that gravity waves excited by nighttime radiative cooling of the elevated terrain of the Andes propagated offshore in the lower troposphere and destabilized the offshore atmosphere, contributing to

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

tropopause to the mid- and lower stratosphere during QBOEM and QBOEL, respectively, but become more positive with height (shear anomalies are positive) from below the tropopause to the mid- and lower stratosphere during QBOWM and QBOWL, respectively ( Figs. 5a,b ). These differences in QBO phase characteristics also extend to atmospheric static stability ( ; Fig. 5c ) and to static stability anomalies ( Fig. 5d ). Although stratospheric static stability is positive (the atmosphere is stable) for all

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