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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

evaluate fluxes simulated by a widely applied and validated energy balance snowmelt model. As a method, EC has been in wide use since the early 1990s, but only in the past decade or so have EC systems been applied over natural field sites with complex canopy and terrain structure. In the past few years, the reliability of EC systems has improved, and the size and power requirements have been reduced to the point that they can be operated unattended at a remote site without line power. Although the EB

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Nick Rutter, Don Cline, and Long Li

meteorological input data to model snowpack mass and energy conditions. d. Analytical techniques The physical performance of the NSM was assessed by comparison to snowpit and meteorological observations, and to SNTHERM. The comparison of the NSM with snowpit observations was evaluated using the root-mean-squared differences (RMSDs) by site and the collective RMSD from all sites grouped together. For comparison of the NSM with hourly meteorological observations and hourly SNTHERM estimates, pairs of modeled

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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

to be transferred into the operational Noah model to improve CRTM estimates of snow T b . To accomplish the second objective, we evaluate the performance of three SEMs coupled with the VIC model using AMSR-E satellite observations of T b (at 18.7, 37, and 89 GHz for both horizontal and vertical polarization) at two sites from the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) in Colorado during the winter of 2003. The three SEMs are the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) of

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Glen E. Liston and Christopher A. Hiemstra

. , Shook K. R. , Toth B. , Essery R. L. H. , Pietroniro A. , and Hedstrom N. , 1998 : An evaluation of snow accumulation and ablation processes for land surface modelling. Hydrol. Processes , 12 , 2339 – 2367 . 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199812)12:15<2339::AID-HYP800>3.0.CO;2-L Reichle, R. H. , Walker J. P. , Koster R. D. , and Houser P. R. , 2002 : Extended versus ensemble Kalman filtering for land data assimilation. J. Hydrometeor. , 3 , 728 – 740 . 10

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

). FASST, a year-round state-of-the-ground model, was initially developed to provide information to mobility and sensor performance algorithms for military purposes. It has since been used in nonmilitary situations ( Holcombe 2004 ; Sawyer 2007 ; Frankenstein et al. 2007 ). FASST predicts soil moisture, ice and vapor content, and temperature as a function of depth as well as snow and ice accretion/depletion as a function of meteorological forcing and site characteristics. Incorporated into the model

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Janet Hardy, Robert Davis, Yeohoon Koh, Don Cline, Kelly Elder, Richard Armstrong, Hans-Peter Marshall, Thomas Painter, Gilles Castres Saint-Martin, Roger DeRoo, Kamal Sarabandi, Tobias Graf, Toshio Koike, and Kyle McDonald

years and by several cooperating institutions and numerous people. The data presented here were intended to show the contents of the larger database. This database provides details of fully characterized snow, soil, canopy, energy balance, and microwave properties. Using this database, physically based models, remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and theories can be confidently evaluated with minimal ambiguity. Scaling exercises, in conjunction with the full CLPX dataset, will test the performance

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