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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

than has been achieved using higher-resolution atmospheric models developed more specifically for this purpose (e.g., Zhao et al. 2009 ; Bender et al. 2010 ). Fig . 20. Tropical cyclone frequency (per year) for (a) AM3, (b) CM3, and (c) U.S. National Hurricane Center and Navy observations. The AM3 tropical (15°S to 15°N) wave spectrum has been evaluated in the format of Wheeler and Kiladis (1999) . AM3 is essentially without Kelvin waves or a Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) in contrast to the

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

: The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2/LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations . J. Climate , 17 , 4641 – 4673 . Gnanadesikan , A. , and Coauthors , 2006 : GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part II: The baseline ocean simulation . J. Climate , 19 , 675 – 697 . Gnanadesikan , A. , S. Griffies , and B. Samuels , 2007 : Effects in a climate model of slope tapering in neutral physics schemes . Ocean Modell. , 17 , 1 – 16 . Gordon , A. , R. Susanto

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

ozone from about the late 1980s. Ozone loss in the Arctic is somewhat smaller and barely perceptible in this framework. Overall, the model results tend to be biased low in the Arctic by up to 40 Dobson units (DU) and high in the southern midlatitudes by up to 20 DU compared with measurements of the contemporary atmosphere. This is consistent with the known performance of the previous stratospheric version of the climate model ( Austin and Wilson 2006 ), which does not include tropospheric chemistry

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