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Paul A. Dirmeyer

Group was tasked with comparing the model results with available observations to assess model performance. The Intercomparison Center served as a collection and redistribution point for the model output, and performed output consistency checks and direct comparisons between models. A major accomplishment of the Production Group was the creation of a global 6-hourly meteorological forcing dataset at 1° resolution. Much of the near-surface meteorology came from the 6-hourly operational analysis

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

simulations, H08-NAT and H08 (corresponding to MAT-NAT and MAT-HI simulations, respectively), are conducted using the H08 model ( Table 1 ). 4. Model evaluation and analyses This section presents the evaluation of model performance. To investigate the effect of model parameterizations (complexity) in the hydrological simulations, the modeled terrestrial water storage (TWS) is first compared with the observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission ( Tapley et al

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

runs. On the other hand, all tests of run 5 revealed worse results. The tendency of the error statistics for a given test (2–13) with respect to the runs was roughly the same as that of the control (test 1). Differences in statistical values among the tests were generally not significantly large; however, the model performance for the large surface temperature anomaly test (test 12) was generally the worst for a given run when evaluated in terms of the statistical values. Random bias of the

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

clouds and discriminating high and low intensity areas. The WRF parameterization and simulations are also evaluated and the model results are used to explore the extreme events in “controlled” conditions. a. The 183-WSL retrieval algorithm The 183-WSL algorithm ( Laviola and Levizzani 2008 , 2009 , 2011 ) is a PMW fast rainfall retrieval method, which infers rain rates on the basis of a linear combination of the AMSU-B T B values of the opaque channels at 183.31 GHz. A multiple regression

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

) probably because of catchment delineation problems. Monthly performance showed that between 78% and 46% of catchments performed fairly (or better) depending on the performance coefficient used (Kendall’s ranked correlation or Nash–Sutcliffe, respectively). The authors recommended using monthly outputs only for catchments where seasonal water storage in aquifers is not significant because of model limitations to simulate this process ( Imbach et al. 2010 ). The model overestimated LAI in Costa Rica and

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

WUE. Further analyses are required to evaluate this effect. One advantage of this study, however, is that the approach adopted (i.e., analysis of WUE based on a terrestrial ecosystem model simulation) allowed us to examine carbon and water processes in a manner complementary to hydrological water-resource assessment. This approach is particularly effective for investigating biogeochemical cycling from an ecohydrological perspective, and discussing ecosystem services, in which a wide spectrum of

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

retrievals effectively removed the outliers and consequently resulted in large improvements over the model skill. Finally, we again condense the results by translating the improvements shown in Fig. 5 into a summary plot. Figure 6 compares the contributions of precipitation corrections and retrieval assimilation to the skill of surface soil moisture when evaluated against the two sets of in situ measurements using a common mask. The combined skill improvement from precipitation corrections and

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

between the two neighboring samplings. It should be noted that both algorithms of the LSMs only consider E WC from the canopy by ignoring E WC from trunk and stemflow. g. Evaluation of model wet canopy duration The wet canopy duration estimated from the LSM algorithms was compared with the observations in order to assess their performance using the fraction of the correct estimates ( θ 1 ): where H is the hits, M is the misses, N is the correct negatives, and F is the false alarm. The H

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

on ( Margolis et al. 2006 ). The net CO 2 exchange rate of terrestrial ecosystems is actuated by the balance between the CO 2 input by photosynthesis and its output by emission through plant and soil respiration. The carbon dynamics model infers that terrestrial ecosystems will ultimately shift from a net sink to a source of CO 2 because respiration rate increases faster than photosynthetic rate as ecosystems acclimate to climate change ( Cox et al. 2000 ). Therefore, it is very important to

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