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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

) are also used for model performance evaluation. AERONET is a ground-based network for remote sensing of aerosol optical, microphysical, and radiative properties. It imposes standardized instruments, calibration, processing, and distribution across the network. The quality-assured level 2 data have been used in this investigation. The NU-WRF Model is used to simulate this SAL event and to investigate the role of dust and other aerosols in the local atmospheric structure. NU-WRF is a regional Earth

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Lucas Merckelbach, Anja Berger, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Jeffrey R. Carpenter

; Schultze et al. 2017 ; St. Laurent and Merrifield 2017 ; Scheifele et al. 2018 ). The most commonly used flight model is that of Merckelbach et al. (2010) , who assume a steady-state balance between buoyancy, drag, and lift, and use the measured pitch angle and buoyancy change achieved by the buoyancy engine to compute the speed through water ( Fer et al. 2014 ; Peterson and Fer 2014 ; Palmer et al. 2015 ; Schultze et al. 2017 ; Scheifele et al. 2018 ). The numerical evaluation of these forces

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Hui Christophersen, Altug Aksoy, Jason Dunion, and Kathryn Sellwood

) generally leads to improvements in TC track ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ; Chou et al. 2011 ; Majumdar et al. 2013 ) and intensity ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ; Torn 2014 ) forecasts in global and regional modeling applications. Compared to traditional aircraft, the GH offers much longer range and higher-altitude sampling. GH dropwindsondes deployed in Hurricane Edouard (2014) were used to examine the storm’s thermodynamic and kinematic structures ( Zawislak et al. 2016 ; Rogers et al. 2016 ). These

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

utilized to independently verify how representative the simulations of Nadine were to the observed TC. 3. Results and discussion a. Forecast performance comparison of WRF-EnKF and operational ensemble Given the unique and lengthy track of Hurricane Nadine, the performance of the WRF-EnKF system is first evaluated against that of an operational ensemble. Figure 2 shows a 126-h section (0000 UTC 20 September–0600 UTC 25 September) of the best track of Nadine as well as the corresponding ensemble member

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

component of the observing system envisioned by MacDonald (2005) by bringing to bear the high-altitude long-endurance GH platform, a broad array of instruments, and new sampling strategies to provide data for in-depth study, for assimilation into models, and for detailed evaluation and validation of models. AIRCRAFT. HS3 used two of NASA’s unmanned GH aircraft [see Braun et al. (2013) for background on the aircraft] and selected distinct payload sets for each aircraft. One GH, known as Air Vehicle

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Erin B. Munsell, Fuqing Zhang, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, and Yonghui Weng

). These same observations, when not assimilated, can be used for model verification. The tropical wave that eventually became Edouard exited the African coast on 6 September ( Stewart 2014 ). A broad area of low pressure and disorganized convection traveled westward for ~4 days until convection began to increase near the surface center late on 10 September. Edouard was subsequently designated as a tropical depression the following day, and slow but steady strengthening led to Edouard becoming a

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Erin B. Munsell, Fuqing Zhang, Scott A. Braun, Jason A. Sippel, and Anthony C. Didlake

warm core correlated with intensity change. More recent modeling studies have also suggested that the height of the warm core in TCs may be lower in the troposphere than traditionally believed. Stern and Nolan (2012) and Stern and Zhang (2013a , b ) performed an extensive series of idealized experiments in which the microphysics, storm size, magnitude of vertical wind shear, and intensity all varied, and they consistently obtained TCs with maximum inner-core temperature perturbations in the

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

, 2013 : Evaluation WWLLN performance relative to TRMM/LIS . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 40 , 2344 – 2348 , doi: 10.1002/grl.50428 . Schubert , W. H. , and J. J. Hack , 1982 : Inertial stability and tropical cyclone development . J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 1687 – 1697 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<1687:ISATCD>2.0.CO;2 . Schubert , W. H. , M. T. Montgomery , R. K. Taft , T. A. Guinn , S. R. Fulton , J. P. Kossin , and J. P. Edwards , 1999 : Polygonal eyewalls, asymmetric eye

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