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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

surface fluxes, to surface influence on the CBL. Restricting ourselves to fair-weather days allows a focus on surface layer fluxes and boundary layer structure without the complications of precipitating convection. In our comparisons, we address both uncertainties in the observations and model shortcomings. The data and results discussed herein and in Part II are being used to evaluate and improve the Noah LSM and the performance of the ARW-WRF model in representing fair-weather CBL structure and

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Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Dev Niyogi

evolution to evaluate the ability to HRLDAS to replicate the horizontal variation of fluxes during IHOP_2002. We were surprised to find that Noah–HRLDAS did not work as well as expected for 29 May 2002, a day characterized by significant horizontal heterogeneity ( Kang et al. 2007 ). Hence, this paper’s objectives changed from a model–observation comparison for a number of days to exploring the reasons HRLDAS failed to replicate the observations of H , LE, and T s along the IHOP_2002 western track on

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Diane Strassberg, Margaret A. LeMone, Thomas T. Warner, and Joseph G. Alfieri

) or tethersondes for evaluation, rather than using averaged data from point 10-m measurements. In the absence of such data, the alternative for model evaluation is to allow for the fact that surface-site exposure can lead to measured winds stronger than representative of the area corresponding to a model grid using results from studies like this one. Acknowledgments Part of this work is extracted from D. Strassberg’s senior thesis at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The NCAR portion of this

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

observations, H and CBL depth were too high. This is likely due to too low a value of the coefficient C in Zilitinkevich’s formulation used in relating the roughness lengths for heat and momentum in the Noah LSM, with too-low simulated soil moisture playing a secondary role. Here, we evaluate the ARW-WRF–Noah modeling system’s ability to simulate convective circulations in the fair-weather CBL on scales from a few kilometers to ∼100 km. The region (the vicinity of the triangle and “eastern

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Edward I. Tollerud, Fernando Caracena, Steven E. Koch, Brian D. Jamison, R. Michael Hardesty, Brandi J. McCarty, Christoph Kiemle, Randall S. Collander, Diana L. Bartels, Steven Albers, Brent Shaw, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and W. Alan Brewer

dropsonde measurements of wind, pressure, temperature, and moisture) were included in some parallel runs via a modified telescoping Barnes scheme. The vertical resolution of the LAPS analyses was 25 hPa. During the field experiment, the NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory (now the Global Systems Division of the ESRL) provided real-time mesoscale numerical model guidance to the IHOP_2002 operations center from multiple advanced modeling systems with the goal of assessing their performance in a quasi

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S. B. Trier, F. Chen, K. W. Manning, M. A. LeMone, and C. A. Davis

, and turbulent closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 927 – 945 . Kain , J. S. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1993 : Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170 . Knievel , J. C. , D. A. Ahijevych , and K. W. Manning , 2004 : Using temporal modes of rainfall to evaluate the performance of a numerical weather prediction model. Mon. Wea. Rev

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Steven E. Koch, Wayne Feltz, Frédéric Fabry, Mariusz Pagowski, Bart Geerts, Kristopher M. Bedka, David O. Miller, and James W. Wilson

. Randall , and J. VanAndel , 1995 : NCAR’s S-Pol: Portable polarimetric S-band radar. Preprints. Ninth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 408–410 . Manobianco , J. , and P. A. Nutter , 1999 : Evaluation of the 29-km Eta model. Part II: Subjective verification over Florida. Wea. Forecasting , 14 , 18 – 37 . Mlawer , E. J. , S. J. Taubman , P. D. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer

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