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J. C. Hermes, C. J. C. Reason, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms

Ruijter et al. 2002 ; Ridderinkhof and de Ruijter 2003 ; Schouten et al. 2002b ). Data from current meters deployed during ACSEX indicate that the flow from the Mozambique Channel is mainly contributed to by anticyclonic eddies rather than an obvious southward current ( Ridderinkhof and de Ruijter 2003 ). However, these observations occur over a limited time and are unable to fully determine the range of variability in the source regions, thus pointing to the need for model investigations. Similarly

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

. , and J. McWilliams , 1990 : Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 20 , 150 – 155 . GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team , 2004 : The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate , 17 , 4641 – 4673 . Gill , A. E. , 1980 : Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 106 , 447 – 462 . Gnanadesikan , A. , and Coauthors , 2006 : GFDL

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

spectral model with a horizontal resolution of T42 and with 20 sigma levels in the vertical. The physical parameterizations include a sophisticated radiative transfer scheme ( Nakajima and Tanaka 1986 ), a simplified Arakawa–Schubert cumulus convection scheme ( Arakawa and Schubert 1974 ), a prognostic cloud water scheme ( Le Treut and Li 1991 ), a bulk surface fluxes scheme ( Louis 1979 ), and a simple land surface model ( Manabe et al. 1965 ). Detailed descriptions and general performance of the

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

– 2880 . Kalnay , E. , and Coauthors , 1996 : The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 437 – 471 . Kanamitsu , M. , W. Ebisuzaki , J. Woolen , J. Potter , and M. Fiorion , 2000 : An overview of NCEP/DOE Reanalysis-2. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Reanalyses , WCRP-109, WMO Tech. Doc. 985, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 1–4 . Klinker , E. , 1997 : Diagnosis of the ECMWF model performance over the tropical oceans. Proc. Seminar on Atmosphere

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