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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

produced by biosphere process models. Linking these prior flux fields to observed spatiotemporally corresponding observations of atmospheric CO 2 , inverse modeling can provide an indispensable tool to evaluate the representativeness of the bottom-up modeling products, many of which still fail to fully capture the interdependent biosphere and atmospheric processes in every detail needed ( Schwalm et al. 2010 ; Keenan et al. 2012 ; Richardson et al. 2012 ; Lichstein et al. 2014 ). Regional

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

ORCHIDEE-FM ( Bellassen et al. 2010 ) and CABLE-POP ( Haverd et al. 2013 , 2014 ) models, except that these previous models consider a single tile per grid cell for the computation of land–atmosphere exchanges. In the context of albedo computation with the HLM, the three approaches differed only in their evaluation of [Equation (1) ], which reflected the application of the versus function [Equation (2) ] to each patch (Full), to a single grid-mean amount of stem carbon (Average) or to each LF

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

of environments ranging from tropical forests in the north through to temperate and Mediterranean climates in the south, east, and west, to hyperarid desert environments away from the coast ( Gentilli 1972 ). Australia therefore provides an ideal test case for evaluating the relationship between LUC, temperature extremes, and land–atmosphere coupling. 2. Methodology 2.1. Model description WRF is a community regional weather and climate model with a nonhydrostatic Eulerian dynamical core with

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

also confirm the normality of the residuals using a one-sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test ( Von Storch and Zwiers 2001 ). The overall performance of the models and the individual independent variables are further assessed by the F test and Student’s t test, respectively. Finally, the adjusted R 2 for both models are calculated to investigate whether integrating the NDVI information could improve the performance of the model of SST alone, and the partial correlation coefficients in the

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

considered to represent a statistically significantly increase (similarly if 97.5% of the difference were less than 0 this was considered to represent a statistically significantly decrease and otherwise representing no significant change). 3. Results 3.1. Evaluation of model performance To evaluate model performance, simulations for the period 1991–2000 were compared with PRISM data (PRISM Climate Group, available online at http://prism.oregonstate.edu ). Figure 2 shows that WRF Model simulation can

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

resolution from 2002 to the present and is commonly used as a benchmark for subdaily observations ( AghaKouchak et al. 2011 ). 3. Results 3.1. Land surface evaluation Within the inner model domain, reported irrigated water use from the USGS was 30.6 billion gal day −1 in 2000 ( Hutson et al. 2004 ) and 29.3 billion gal day −1 in 2005 ( Kenny et al. 2009 ). On average, WRF uses 27.4 billion gal day −1 in all DYN-IRR simulations (32.6 billion gal day −1 in 2000 and 21.7 billion gal day −1 in 2005) and

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

. 2016 ) is used to perform the climate simulations. RCA4 and its predecessors, RCA, RCA2, and RCA3, have been extensively used and evaluated in studies of present and future climate (e.g., Rummukainen et al. 2001 ; Räisänen et al. 2004 ; Kjellström et al. 2011 ; Nikulin et al. 2011 ). Also, RCA3 has been used in palaeoclimatological applications for downscaling global model results for the last millennium ( Graham et al. 2009 ; Schimanke et al. 2012 ), for parts of the Marine Isotope Stage 3

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