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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

four candidate functions: linear (magenta), power (black), exponential (green), and combined exponential and power (red), presented for (a) area 5 in January and (b) area 3 in June (2016–19). Having obtained the coefficients of regression, the statistical performance measures ( appendix B ) are used to evaluate the regression models. Tables 1 and 2 present the evaluation of four regression models related to Figs. 13a and 13b . The corresponding results for de la Cámara and Lott (2015

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

components of the atmospheric circulation system by adjusting free parameters of the different GW drag schemes (e.g., Garcia et al. 2017 ; Orr et al. 2010 ). Therefore, it is important to assess how well current convection-permitting GCMs are performing at reproducing observed features of GWMF and to understand how sensitive these features are to changes in model formulation as well as resolution. Moreover, a formal evaluation of the simulations against observational data is not a trivial task. We use

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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828 . 10.1002/qj.828 de la Torre , L. , R. R. Garcia , D. Barriopedro , and A. Chandran , 2012 : Climatology and characteristics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model . J. Geophys. Res ., 117 , D04110 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016840 . Dunkerton , T

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

et al. 2009 ). Therefore, various instruments and measurement techniques must be combined to cover the different altitude ranges and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the gravity wave spectrum (e.g., Bossert et al. 2014 ; Goldberg et al. 2004 ; Takahashi et al. 2014 ). Furthermore, complementary linear theory or numerical modeling is a necessary prerequisite to understand the characteristics and propagation properties of the observed gravity waves. The approach of the Role of the Middle

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

1. Introduction The overarching objectives of the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE; see appendix A for a list of key acronyms used in this paper) were to observe, model, understand, and predict the deep vertical propagation of internal gravity waves from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere and to study their impacts on the atmospheric momentum and energy budget ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). Convection, fronts, flow over mountains, and spontaneous adjustments occurring at the

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