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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

(20 stations), and OzNet in Australia (38 stations). While many other stations are available through the ISMN, these five networks were selected because they have data over most of 2007–10 and were successfully used at ECMWF to evaluate soil moisture products from either modeling (e.g., Albergel et al. 2012b ) or remote sensing (e.g., Albergel et al. 2012c ). They also cover a wide variety of climatological conditions. Figure 1 gives an overview of the location of the stations used in this

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Sujay V. Kumar, Kenneth W. Harrison, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., and Dalia Kirschbaum

ensemble member within a grid cell. The probability of drought or flood risk p is then computed by comparing each ensemble member within a grid cell to the corresponding truth estimate ( Fig. 3 ). The incurred costs are then computed as described in section 2 . Fig . 3. The decision tree used in the cost–loss model. 4. Results and discussion The results presented in this section focus first on the evaluation of the soil moisture and runoff fields from data assimilation. The comparison of the drought

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Husayn El Sharif, Jingfeng Wang, and Aris P. Georgakakos

. , Wagner W. , and Fernández-Prieto D. , 2012 : Evaluating global trends (1988–2010) in harmonized multi-satellite surface soil moisture . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L18405 , doi: 10.1029/2012GL052988 . El-Sharkawy, M. A. , 2011 : Overview: Early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling . Biosystems , 103 , 205 – 211 , doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.08.004 . Entekhabi, D. , and Coauthors , 2010 : The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission . Proc. IEEE , 98 , 704 – 716

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Fan Chen, Wade T. Crow, and Dongryeol Ryu

filtering that assimilates both and into the API model for rainfall correction. 4. Results Prior to consideration of SAC streamflow results, the improvement of TMPA 3B40RT rainfall via SMART application is evaluated in section 4a . This is followed by an assessment of the bias correction scheme described above on SAC streamflow results in section 4b . Finally, streamflow data assimilation results for the five separate cases described in section 3c are presented in section 4c . a. SMART rainfall

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Marco L. Carrera, Stéphane Bélair, and Bernard Bilodeau

model forecast with precipitation observations. In the second part of this study, results from a continental-scale synthetic data assimilation experiment are presented where passive microwave L-band brightness temperatures TBs are assimilated. The added skill in the analysis of the soil moisture state from the inclusion of these TB observations is quantified by means of domain-averaged performance metrics. Innovation diagnostics are presented to evaluate the assimilation scheme performance. The

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Amy McNally, Gregory J. Husak, Molly Brown, Mark Carroll, Chris Funk, Soni Yatheendradas, Kristi Arsenault, Christa Peters-Lidard, and James P. Verdin

2008, personal communication) and therefore spatially averaged WRSI values over these zones. We expected that the Noah modeled soil moisture would best correlate with millet production since it represents the root zone in greater detail than the bucket or ECV microwave soil moisture. 3. Results a. Comparisons of soil moisture estimates and derived WRSI The difference between the three soil moisture estimates is evaluated by pixel-wise correlation from 2001 to 2010. The Noah SM and bucket estimates

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Susan Frankenstein, Maria Stevens, and Constance Scott

the model and “allows for the development of quantitative information on the mobility of a given vehicle in a selected geographic area” ( U.S. Army 1973 , p. 3). AMC ’71 was mainly used to assess off-road performance design considerations for new vehicle development. The AMC ’71 model was soon followed by AMC ’74. Major revisions included vehicle performance on slippery soils, muskeg, and shallow snow; improved driver behavior; travel on paved roads; and upgrades to the computer code ( Jurkat et

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

Kumar P. , 2000 : A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model. (2) Parameter estimation and model demonstration . J. Geophys. Res. , 105 ( D20 ), 24 823 – 24 838 . Entekhabi, D. , Reichle R. H. , Koster R. D. , and Crow W. T. , 2010a : Performance metrics for soil moisture retrievals and applications requirements . J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 832 – 840 , doi:10.1175/2010JHM1223.1. Entekhabi, D. , and Coauthors , 2010b : The Soil

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John D. Hottenstein, Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos, Julio Moguel-Yanes, and M. Susan Moran

importance of soil moisture within an ecosystem increases, the effect precipitation patterns have on the ability of rainfall to infiltrate into the soil becomes an important area of study. If the relationship of intra-annual precipitation events on soil moisture can be better understood, models of precipitation and soil moisture can be improved. Climates across the world are undergoing unprecedented changes. While global precipitation has been reported to exceed the 1961–90 average every year since 1995

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