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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

48 h. The authors also tried to use NARR ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ) data as the initial and boundary conditions, but these tests were less successful than those presented here. c. Observation data To evaluate the model results, the following “independent” datasets were used: (i) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 0.25° unified rain gauge daily precipitation analysis for the United States and Mexico (available online at ; see also Higgins et al. 1999

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

1. Introduction This is a sequel to a number of recent studies on multimodel forecast performances where different physical parameterizations are carried out by different member models. Krishnamurti and Sanjay (2003) utilized six different cumulus parameterization schemes in the Florida State University (FSU) global spectral model (FSUGSM). About 100 short-range numerical prediction experiments were performed with each of the six models. In all of these experiments, the model physics (except

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

this area also make it harder to detect the secondary peak with satellites. The diurnal cycle has been serving an observational metric for evaluating model physics. Because the number of rain gauges over China is not enough to provide a complete picture of the rainfall diurnal cycle, satellite products have been regarded as one supplementary data source. Although one motivation for this study is to establish an objective measure for evaluating performances of cumulus parameterizations and other

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

explaining diurnal variability in deep convective environments stems from the fact that significant differences between daytime–nighttime oceanic lapse rates are not observed ( Betts 1982 ; Emanuel 1986 , 1994 ; Xu and Emanuel 1989 ). Moreover, the troposphere may actually become stabilized from deep cumulus-layer overturning ( Ruprecht and Gray 1976 ; Gray and Jacobson 1977 ). However, SRC is the favored mechanism found in a study by Randall et al. (1991) based on a general circulation model (GCM

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