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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

multiple events remains an open question. The study undertaken will evaluate dual-polarization rainfall estimates as inputs to a calibrated, distributed hydrologic model for a comprehensive dataset of storm events. The study capitalizes on data collected from KOUN in Norman, Oklahoma, over a densely instrumented basin near Ft. Cobb, Oklahoma. Rain gauges installed in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) research watershed were used along with USGS stream gauge

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Ali Behrangi, Bisher Imam, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, Timothy J. Bellerby, and George J. Huffman

radar systems, provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Environmental Modeling Center (EMC; Lin and Mitchell 2005 ). The NCEP/EMC 4-km gridded radar rainfall estimates were remapped to a 0.08° latitude–longitude grid maps, compatible with the IR and MW dataset. In this study, the first half period (1 June–15 July 2006) dataset was used for training and calibration purpose and the rest was used to evaluate the results. The ground radar precipitation data is the

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

step in this direction by evaluating microphysical parameterizations and low-level winds in a state-of-the-art mesoscale model. 4. Defining extreme precipitation events nationally Although the analysis presented above focuses on QPF verification for the West Coast, the scope of NOAA’s QPF services is national, and thus QPF verification needs to occur on a national level. To assess QPF performance throughout each region of the United States, suitable 24-h accumulated precipitation thresholds are

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

, rather than globally, implying a minimization of local cost functions. This allows better fit to observations and eventually improves the filter performance. 3. Experiments of Tropical Storm Erin (2007) The prototype system of the WRF-EDAS is built with a high-resolution WRF model, a set of observation operators for in situ and remote-sensed observations, and an analysis scheme to handle nonlinearity and background error covariance localization. To test and evaluate the system, we carried out data

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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

performed first, and then the corrected satellite data were evaluated against the withheld gauge data. Since the correction will work for the satellite data within the training period as well, we also went back to correct them for the first 4 yr. During the training period, we further split each annual cycle into a warm season (from May to October) and a cold season (from November to April), resulting in four warm seasons and three cold seasons. The training was performed separately for the two

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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

) radar data. Both evaluations showed that the local VPR approach provided more improvements in radar-derived QPE than the mean volume scan VPRs. However, the local VPR approach is relatively expensive computationally and is not easily implemented for operational applications. Thus, an alternative VPR approach based on idealized VPR models with a reduced number (i.e., 5–6) of physically based parameters has been adapted by many studies (e.g., Kitchen et al. 1994 ; Kitchen 1997 ; Matrosov et al

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

sector, and relationship with West African rainfall over the 1989–2008 period from a self-organizing map approach . J. Climate , 24 , 3423 – 3432 , doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3622.1 . Radić, V. , and Clarke G. , 2011 : Evaluation of IPCC modelsperformance in simulating late-twentieth-century climatologies and weather patterns over North America . J. Climate , 24 , 5257 – 5274 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00011.1 . Reusch, D. B. , Alley R. B. , and Hewitson B. C. , 2007 : North Atlantic

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

(~10 km) gauges are different. All the gauges were manually quality controlled before the statistics calculation. The quality control was based on subjective assessments of temporal and spatial consistencies of the gauge observations, and only gauges with very high confidence were retained for the evaluation of radar QPEs. The performance of each algorithm is quantified using the following statistics. Bias ratio is Here and are the averaged 24-h (or hourly) radar and gauge precipitation

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

precipitation proportional to the combination of terrain slope, cross-barrier flow, and column-integrated moisture with modifications by advective processes and wave dynamics. Smith et al. (2005) used this model to reproduce the east–west pattern of precipitation gradients across Oregon. Hughes et al. (2009) found that such linear models agree closely with observations for unblocked flow but degrade in performance for blocked-flow cases. The enhancement of precipitation above or near local peaks in

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