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Kevin M. Simmons and Daniel Sutter

using NWS warning verification records and casualties from over 20 000 tornadoes across the contiguous United States. We will use the actual warning performance, or the objective FAR as calculated from NWS warning records, in our analysis. But residents’ warning response in the expected utility model depends on their subjective perception of warning quality, that is, what they perceive the FAR to be and not the objective FAR. Subjective perceptions may diverge from objective measures, yet

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Danielle E. Nagele and Joseph E. Trainor

factors that influence protective action decision making. Two general warning models dominate these empirical analyses and provide much of the logical and theoretical foundation for most modern empirical works. The first model was developed by Mileti and Sorensen (1990) inductively, as part of an extensive review of the state of knowledge related to warnings. The second model, called the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM), was developed around the same time by Michael Lindell and Ronald Perry

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Alan W. Black and Walker S. Ashley

responsible for taking action ( Belville 1987 ). Warning performance improved greatly between the 1980s and early 1990s because of advances in radar technologies, forecasting methods, and meteorological knowledge ( Brooks 2004 ). Brotzge and Erickson (2010) found that 73.6% of tornadoes in the 2000–04 period were associated with a NWS warning. Simmons and Sutter (2005) established that after the installation of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), the percentage of tornadoes warned

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