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Chengcheng Xu, Chen Wang, and Pan Liu

. (2017) used the hierarchical Bayesian model to evaluate the impacts of real-time traffic conditions on the likelihood of hit-and-run crashes. Vehicle speed, roadway segment length, and weekend days were found to be positively correlated with the hit-and-run crash risks. Dimitriou et al. (2018) developed a multinomial logit model to assess rear-end crash potential based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics, and operational conditions. The results showed that speed

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

when this parameter will be surpassed. A DA threshold can be defined as a numerical value (e.g., DA > 1000 ft, DA > 2000 ft, DA > 3000 ft) or defined as a specific aircraft performance (e.g., power margin decrease). Establishing DA thresholds combined with frequency of occurrence is especially useful when translating the projection of rising DA into a meaningful metric for assessing risk probability. As previously mentioned, the correlation of GCMs modeled observed temperature data to observed

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Tamara U. Wall, Alison M. Meadow, and Alexandra Horganic

). Focusing on the process of engagement between scientists and stakeholders, Walter et al. (2007) constructed an explanatory model to evaluate a transdisciplinary project. Through statistical analysis, they found that the outcomes of network building, distribution of knowledge, and transformation of knowledge were significantly correlated to the predictor variable “involvement” as measured by the number of engagement activities that took place during the project. Beierle (2002) examined 239 public

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E. Coffel and R. Horton

calculated for each model and then averaged to form a multimodel mean. The changes in mean daily maximum and yearly maximum temperature are computed for each model and then averaged in Fig. 1 . The generalized extreme value distribution parameters are calculated for each model individually and then averaged in Fig. 2 . Observational temperature data from each airport site is obtained from the NCDC. Weight-restriction temperatures are obtained from the 737-800 performance charts ( Boeing 2013 ) for sea

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

use data (referred to as ALU simulations). These results are compared with outputs from an ideal extreme land use scenario (ELU simulation) in which the dryland crop pasture classes were converted to an urban class. Model results were evaluated using surface and vertical atmospheric observations. The ELU simulation resulted in a land use distribution resembling current patterns over the SWFWMD and leads to discussions regarding the possible impacts of the extreme urbanization. We pay particular

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

, with different features removed from the list of predictors. The subset of features with the highest evaluation performance is chosen as the final set to be used for the regression. Its performance is then evaluated on an independent test set that was not used during the search ( Kohavi and John 1997 ). This procedure is repeated 10 times with different initialization values in a model step called outer cross-validation to establish feature ranks. For a particular feature, a rank of 30%, for

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D. H. Cobon, R. Darbyshire, J. Crean, S. Kodur, M. Simpson, and C. Jarvis

decision drivers (steer prices and pasture availability). An overview of the methodology is outlined in Fig. 2 . Three key components are provided to the economic model to evaluate the potential value of SCFs: forecast probabilities, biophysical production, and economic settings (costs and prices). Fig . 2. Methodological overview. Generation of biophysical data, beef production costs, beef prices, and climate state classification of historical data and probabilistic forecasts are used in the economic

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John Y. N. Cho and James M. Kurdzo

and help meteorologists make severe weather warning decisions (e.g., Stensrud et al. 2009 ). Meteorological radars, however, are costly to acquire, operate, and maintain. As we make plans for future sensor networks, including replacement of the current weather radars, benefit monetization is needed to evaluate the trade-off between performance and cost ( Hondl and Weber 2019 ). The chains of causality that link weather radars to societal benefits are vast and complex. We began our investigation

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Brent Boehlert, Ellen Fitzgerald, James E. Neumann, Kenneth M. Strzepek, and Jeremy Martinich

. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Performance of drought indices for ecological, agricultural, and hydrological applications . Earth Interact. , 16 , 1 – 27 , doi: 10.1175/2012EI000434.1 . Waldhoff, S. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Overview of the special issue: A multi-model framework to achieve consistent evaluation of climate change impacts in the United States . Climatic Change , 131 , 1 – 20 , doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1206-0 . Ward, F. A. , 1987 : Economics of water allocation to instream uses

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Gregory G. Garner and Anne M. Thompson

(NOMADS). The NAQFC has been subjected to rigorous verification ( Ryan et al. 2004 ). Eder et al. (2006) performed the standard model evaluation statistics, such as bias and error analyses, in part to improve the NAQFC performance and prepare the NAQFC for operational use in 2005. Eder et al. (2009) evaluated the model using both standard and categorical statistics, such as false alarm rates, hit rates, and critical success indices. Eder et al. (2010) use areal forecast statistics in the latest

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