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Ousmane O. Sy, Simone Tanelli, Stephen L. Durden, Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Kwo-Sen Kuo, Noppasin Niamsuwan, Robert M. Beauchamp, V. Chandrasekar, Manuel Vega, and Michael P. Johnson

1. Introduction Numerical weather models must account for the spatial distribution of snow and ice in the atmosphere, given their importance in the hydrological and energy cycles of Earth ( Stephens et al. 2012 ). Spaceborne profiling radars are well suited for measuring the spatial distribution of frozen precipitation globally. The current fleet of spaceborne radars consists of the W-band cloud profiling radar of CloudSat ( Stephens et al. 2008 ), the Dual-Frequency (Ku, Ka) Precipitation

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Robert Conrick, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, and Clifford F. Mass

unavailable. Such radar-based retrievals could help evaluate microphysical biases in regional numerical weather prediction models, such as the documented underprediction of liquid water content and precipitation over windward slopes of the Pacific Northwest ( Conrick and Mass 2019a , b ). In this paper, section 2 describes the data and method used to retrieve microphysical information from radar data using second-generation Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL 2 ) disdrometer observations, and section

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Bin Pei and Firat Y. Testik

methodology for the datasets considered in this study ( sections 3 and 4 ), this methodology was not altered by the ground truth (i.e., rain gauge measurement) or other such parameters that would favor a biasing effect on the results. Fig . 2. Flowchart of RESID rain-rate estimation algorithm, with radar observables (dB Z ), (dB), and (° km −1 ). 3. Data description To evaluate the performance of the RESID, the CSU-HIDRO, and the WSR-88D QPE algorithms, large datasets from two major field

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Stephanie M. Wingo, Walter A. Petersen, Patrick N. Gatlin, Charanjit S. Pabla, David A. Marks, and David B. Wolff

evaluating numerical model output). Since a primary motivator for SIMBA development pertains to subfootprint-scale variabilities, the column grid total horizontal extent is typically set at 5, 10, 15, or 20 km (corresponding to the approximate size of GPM DPR and GMI pixels). However, the system can support larger column grids (as might be used, following the previous examples, for pixel-scale evaluations and/or numerical model output assessment). Prior to the ground-based scanning radar module gridding

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