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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

, organic carbon, and SO 2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments . Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. , 12 , 24 895 – 24 954 , doi: 10.5194/acpd-12-24895-2012 . Engel-Cox , J. A. , C. H. Hollman , B. W. Coutant , and R. M. Hoff , 2004 : Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of MODIS satellite sensor data for regional and urban scale air quality . Atmos. Environ. , 38 , 2495 – 2509 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.039 . Fischer-Bruns , I. , J. Feichter , S. Kloster , and

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Daniel Rothenberg and Chien Wang

computation of and . Following Sudret (2008) , we compute these indices directly from the coefficients of the derived chaos expansions. The sampling technique used to derive Sobol’ indices for the parcel model, applied to the chaos expansions, produces similar estimates to those computed from the coefficients. 3. Results a. Evaluation of emulators To assess the performance of the emulator, two sets of n = 10 000 samples were drawn using maximum Latin hypercube sampling from the parameter space

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

–International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) and the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the 3D wind fields within clouds have been retrieved from multi-Doppler radars ( Collis et al. 2013 ; Fan et al. 2015b ), which is very useful to better understand cloud dynamics and the feedbacks between microphysics and dynamics as well as evaluate model performance ( Fig. 4a ). However, because of the lack of corresponding in-cloud microphysical quantities such as mass and number mixing ratios of

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

, we perform additional simulations with the inclusion of microphysical (AME) and radiative (ARE) effects only (defined as MRO), in which ARE is included starting on the second day (the deep convection regime onward) and then only on the third day (the stratus regime only). 3. Results and discussion a. Model evaluation To validate our model performance, the AME and MRE simulations conducted for the moderate pollution scenario are compared with the observations from the RACORO campaign. The

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

between organic matter and ice nucleation activity, marine INPs could be significant contributors to the INP population in remote marine environments ( Burrows et al. 2013 ; Wilson et al. 2015 ). However, studies have illustrated that climate-relevant properties (e.g., ice water path) of clouds in global climate model simulations are very sensitive to changes in ice nucleation efficiency of marine aerosol ( Yun and Penner 2013 ), and thus these relationships must be evaluated with atmospheric aerosol

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

al. 2003b ; Klein et al. 2010 ; Cziczo and Froyd 2014 ). The analysis of residuals of ice crystals by means of electron-scanning microscopy and mass spectrometry has shown that there is also enrichment of mineral dust in ice residuals sampled in mixed-phase clouds in the Swiss Alps compared to the background aerosol ( Kamphus et al. 2010 ). The large uncertainty in representing ice clouds in global climate models (e.g., Li et al. 2012 ) calls for more observations of both cloud hydrometeors

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 8697 – 8717 , doi: 10.5194/acp-9-8697-2009 . Ramanathan , V. , P. Crutzen , J. Kiehl , and D. Rosenfeld , 2001 : Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle . Science , 294 , 2119 – 2124 , doi: 10.1126/science.1064034 . Rogers , R. R. , and M. K. Yau , 1989 : A Short Course in Cloud Physics . 3rd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, 304 pp . Rosenfeld , D. , 1999 : TRMM observed first direct

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

1. Introduction Ambiguity in the concentrations, sources, composition, and cloud activation properties of naturally occurring aerosol represent a large source of the uncertainty in global model simulations of cloud radiative forcing ( Carslaw et al. 2013 ). This study addresses one critical aspect of aerosol–cloud interactions: characterization of marine ice nucleating particles (INPs). Atmospheric INPs are rare particles (e.g., approximately 1 in 10 5 aerosol particles in the free troposphere

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